draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-09.txt   draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-latest.txt 
HTTPbis Working Group R. Peon HTTPbis Working Group R. Peon
Internet-Draft Google, Inc Internet-Draft Google, Inc
Intended status: Standards Track H. Ruellan Intended status: Standards Track H. Ruellan
Expires: February 1, 2015 Canon CRF Expires: September 29, 2017 Canon CRF
July 31, 2014 March 28, 2017
HPACK - Header Compression for HTTP/2 HPACK: Header Compression for HTTP/2
draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-09 draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-latest
Abstract Abstract
This specification defines HPACK, a compression format for This specification defines HPACK, a compression format for
efficiently representing HTTP header fields in the context of HTTP/2. efficiently representing HTTP header fields, to be used in HTTP/2.
Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor) Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)
Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group Discussion of this draft takes place on the HTTPBIS working group
mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
<https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/>. <https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/>.
Working Group information can be found at Working Group information can be found at <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/
<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/>; that specific to HTTP/2 are at httpbis/>; that specific to HTTP/2 are at <http://http2.github.io/>.
<http://http2.github.io/>.
The changes in this draft are summarized in Appendix A.1.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. HPACK Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1. Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2. Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Compression Process Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Compression Process Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1. Header List Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. Header List Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2. Encoding and Decoding Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2. Encoding and Decoding Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3. Indexing Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3. Header Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3.1. Static Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.4. Header Field Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3.2. Dynamic Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Header Block Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.3.3. Index Address Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Header Block Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.4. Header Field Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2. Header Field Representation Processing . . . . . . . . . . 8 3. Header Block Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5. Header Table Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1. Header Block Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.1. Maximum Table Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2. Header Field Representation Processing . . . . . . . . . 8
5.2. Entry Eviction when Header Table Size Changes . . . . . . 10 4. Dynamic Table Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.3. Entry Eviction when Adding New Entries . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.1. Calculating Table Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6. Primitive Type Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.2. Maximum Table Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6.1. Integer Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.3. Entry Eviction When Dynamic Table Size Changes . . . . . 10
6.2. String Literal Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.4. Entry Eviction When Adding New Entries . . . . . . . . . 10
7. Binary Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. Primitive Type Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7.1. Indexed Header Field Representation . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1. Integer Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7.2. Literal Header Field Representation . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.2. String Literal Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7.2.1. Literal Header Field with Incremental Indexing . . . . 14 6. Binary Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.2.2. Literal Header Field without Indexing . . . . . . . . 15 6.1. Indexed Header Field Representation . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.2.3. Literal Header Field never Indexed . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.2. Literal Header Field Representation . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.3. Header Table Size Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.2.1. Literal Header Field with Incremental Indexing . . . 14
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.2.2. Literal Header Field without Indexing . . . . . . . . 15
8.1. Probing Header Table State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6.2.3. Literal Header Field Never Indexed . . . . . . . . . 16
8.1.1. Applicability to HPACK and HTTP . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.3. Dynamic Table Size Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8.1.2. Mitigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
8.1.3. Never Indexed Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7.1. Probing Dynamic Table State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
8.2. Static Huffman Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7.1.1. Applicability to HPACK and HTTP . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8.3. Memory Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7.1.2. Mitigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8.4. Implementation Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7.1.3. Never-Indexed Literals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
9. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7.2. Static Huffman Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7.3. Memory Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7.4. Implementation Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Appendix A. Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before
publication) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
A.1. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-08 . . . . . . 22
A.2. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-07 . . . . . . 23
A.3. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-06 . . . . . . 23
A.4. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-05 . . . . . . 23
A.5. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-04 . . . . . . 24
A.6. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-03 . . . . . . 24
A.7. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-02 . . . . . . 24
A.8. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-01 . . . . . . 24
A.9. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-00 . . . . . . 25
Appendix B. Static Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Appendix C. Huffman Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Appendix D. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
D.1. Integer Representation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
D.1.1. Example 1: Encoding 10 Using a 5-bit Prefix . . . . . 33
D.1.2. Example 2: Encoding 1337 Using a 5-bit Prefix . . . . 34
D.1.3. Example 3: Encoding 42 Starting at an Octet
Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
D.2. Header Field Representation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . 35
D.2.1. Literal Header Field with Indexing . . . . . . . . . . 35
D.2.2. Literal Header Field without Indexing . . . . . . . . 36
D.2.3. Literal Header Field never Indexed . . . . . . . . . . 37
D.2.4. Indexed Header Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
D.3. Request Examples without Huffman Coding . . . . . . . . . 38
D.3.1. First Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
D.3.2. Second Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
D.3.3. Third Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
D.4. Request Examples with Huffman Coding . . . . . . . . . . . 41
D.4.1. First Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
D.4.2. Second Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
D.4.3. Third Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
D.5. Response Examples without Huffman Coding . . . . . . . . . 45
D.5.1. First Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
D.5.2. Second Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
D.5.3. Third Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
D.6. Response Examples with Huffman Coding . . . . . . . . . . 51
D.6.1. First Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
D.6.2. Second Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
D.6.3. Third Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
1. Introduction
This specification defines HPACK, a compression format for 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
efficiently representing HTTP header fields in the context of HTTP/2 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
[HTTP2]. 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Appendix A. Static Table Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Appendix B. Huffman Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Appendix C. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
C.1. Integer Representation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
C.1.1. Example 1: Encoding 10 Using a 5-Bit Prefix . . . . . 32
C.1.2. Example 2: Encoding 1337 Using a 5-Bit Prefix . . . . 32
C.1.3. Example 3: Encoding 42 Starting at an Octet Boundary 33
C.2. Header Field Representation Examples . . . . . . . . . . 33
C.2.1. Literal Header Field with Indexing . . . . . . . . . 33
C.2.2. Literal Header Field without Indexing . . . . . . . . 34
C.2.3. Literal Header Field Never Indexed . . . . . . . . . 35
C.2.4. Indexed Header Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
C.3. Request Examples without Huffman Coding . . . . . . . . . 36
C.3.1. First Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
C.3.2. Second Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
C.3.3. Third Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
C.4. Request Examples with Huffman Coding . . . . . . . . . . 39
C.4.1. First Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
C.4.2. Second Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
C.4.3. Third Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
C.5. Response Examples without Huffman Coding . . . . . . . . 43
C.5.1. First Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
C.5.2. Second Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
C.5.3. Third Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
C.6. Response Examples with Huffman Coding . . . . . . . . . . 48
C.6.1. First Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
C.6.2. Second Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
C.6.3. Third Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2. HPACK Overview 1. Introduction
In HTTP/1.1 (see [RFC7230]), header fields are encoded without any In HTTP/1.1 (see [RFC7230]), header fields are not compressed. As
form of compression. As web pages have grown to include dozens to web pages have grown to require dozens to hundreds of requests, the
hundreds of requests, the redundant header fields in these requests redundant header fields in these requests unnecessarily consume
now measurably increase latency and unnecessarily consume bandwidth bandwidth, measurably increasing latency.
(see [SPDY-DESC-1] and [SPDY-DESC-2]).
SPDY [SPDY] initially addressed this redundancy by compressing header SPDY [SPDY] initially addressed this redundancy by compressing header
fields using the DEFLATE [DEFLATE] format, which proved very fields using the DEFLATE [DEFLATE] format, which proved very
effective at efficiently representing the redundant header fields. effective at efficiently representing the redundant header fields.
However, that approach exposed a security risk as demonstrated by the However, that approach exposed a security risk as demonstrated by the
CRIME attack (see [CRIME]). CRIME (Compression Ratio Info-leak Made Easy) attack (see [CRIME]).
This document describes HPACK, a new compressor for header fields This specification defines HPACK, a new compressor that eliminates
which eliminates redundant header fields, limits vulnerability to redundant header fields, limits vulnerability to known security
known security attacks, and which has a bounded memory requirement attacks, and has a bounded memory requirement for use in constrained
for use in constrained environments. environments. Potential security concerns for HPACK are described in
Section 7.
2.1. Outline The HPACK format is intentionally simple and inflexible. Both
characteristics reduce the risk of interoperability or security
issues due to implementation error. No extensibility mechanisms are
defined; changes to the format are only possible by defining a
complete replacement.
The HTTP header field encoding defined in this document is based on a 1.1. Overview
header table that maps name-value pairs to index values. The header
table is incrementally updated as new values are encoded or decoded.
A list of header fields is treated as an ordered collection of name- The format defined in this specification treats a list of header
value pairs that can include duplicates. Names and values are fields as an ordered collection of name-value pairs that can include
considered to be opaque sequences of octets. The order of header duplicate pairs. Names and values are considered to be opaque
fields is preserved after being compressed and decompressed. sequences of octets, and the order of header fields is preserved
after being compressed and decompressed.
Encoding is informed by header field tables that map header fields to
indexed values. These header field tables can be incrementally
updated as new header fields are encoded or decoded.
In the encoded form, a header field is represented either literally In the encoded form, a header field is represented either literally
or as a reference to a name-value pair in a header table. A list of or as a reference to a header field in one of the header field
header fields can therefore be encoded using a mixture of references tables. Therefore, a list of header fields can be encoded using a
and literal values. mixture of references and literal values.
Literal values are either encoded directly or use a static Huffman
code.
The encoder is responsible for deciding which header fields to insert The encoder is responsible for deciding which header fields to insert
as new entries in the header table. The decoder executes the as new entries in the header field tables. The decoder executes the
modifications to the header table prescribed by the encoder, modifications to the header field tables prescribed by the encoder,
reconstructing the list of header fields in the process. This reconstructing the list of header fields in the process. This
enables decoders to remain simple and understand a wide variety of enables decoders to remain simple and interoperate with a wide
encoders. variety of encoders.
Examples illustrating the use of these different mechanisms to Examples illustrating the use of these different mechanisms to
represent header fields are available in Appendix D. represent header fields are available in Appendix C.
2.2. Conventions 1.2. Conventions
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
All numeric values are in network byte order. Values are unsigned All numeric values are in network byte order. Values are unsigned
unless otherwise indicated. Literal values are provided in decimal unless otherwise indicated. Literal values are provided in decimal
or hexadecimal as appropriate. Hexadecimal literals are prefixed or hexadecimal as appropriate.
with "0x" to distinguish them from decimal literals.
2.3. Terminology 1.3. Terminology
This document uses the following terms: This specification uses the following terms:
Header Field: A name-value pair. Both the name and value are Header Field: A name-value pair. Both the name and value are
treated as opaque sequences of octets. treated as opaque sequences of octets.
Header Table: The header table (see Section 3.3) is a component used Dynamic Table: The dynamic table (see Section 2.3.2) is a table that
to associate stored header fields to index values. associates stored header fields with index values. This table is
dynamic and specific to an encoding or decoding context.
Static Table: The static table (see Appendix B) is a component used Static Table: The static table (see Section 2.3.1) is a table that
to associate static header fields to index values. This data is statically associates header fields that occur frequently with
ordered, read-only, always accessible, and may be shared amongst index values. This table is ordered, read-only, always
all encoding or decoding contexts. accessible, and it may be shared amongst all encoding or decoding
contexts.
Header List: A header list is an ordered collection of header fields Header List: A header list is an ordered collection of header fields
that are encoded jointly. It can contain duplicate header fields. that are encoded jointly and can contain duplicate header fields.
A complete list of key-value pairs contained in a HTTP request or A complete list of header fields contained in an HTTP/2 header
response is a header list. block is a header list.
Header Field Representation: A header field can be represented in Header Field Representation: A header field can be represented in
encoded form either as a literal or as an index (see Section 3.4). encoded form either as a literal or as an index (see Section 2.4).
Header Block: An ordered list of encoded header field Header Block: An ordered list of header field representations,
representations which, when decoded, yields a complete header which, when decoded, yields a complete header list.
list.
3. Compression Process Overview 2. Compression Process Overview
This specification does not describe a specific algorithm for an This specification does not describe a specific algorithm for an
encoder. Instead, it defines precisely how a decoder is expected to encoder. Instead, it defines precisely how a decoder is expected to
operate, allowing encoders to produce any encoding that this operate, allowing encoders to produce any encoding that this
definition permits. definition permits.
3.1. Header List Ordering 2.1. Header List Ordering
The compression and decompression process preserve the ordering of
header fields inside the header list. An encoder SHOULD order header
field representations in the header block according to their ordering
in the original header list. A decoder SHOULD order header fields in
the decoded header list according to their ordering in the header
block.
In particular, representations for pseudo-header fields MUST appear
before representations for regular header fields in a header block.
In a decoded header list, pseudo-header fields MUST appear before
regular header fields.
3.2. Encoding and Decoding Contexts HPACK preserves the ordering of header fields inside the header list.
An encoder MUST order header field representations in the header
block according to their ordering in the original header list. A
decoder MUST order header fields in the decoded header list according
to their ordering in the header block.
To decode header blocks, a decoder only needs to maintain a header 2.2. Encoding and Decoding Contexts
table (see Section 3.3) as a decoding context. No other state
information is needed.
An encoder that wishes to reference entries in the header table needs To decompress header blocks, a decoder only needs to maintain a
to maintain a copy of the header table used by the decoder. dynamic table (see Section 2.3.2) as a decoding context. No other
dynamic state is needed.
When used for bidirectional communication, such as in HTTP, the When used for bidirectional communication, such as in HTTP, the
encoding and decoding header tables maintained by an endpoint are encoding and decoding dynamic tables maintained by an endpoint are
completely independent. Header fields are encoded without any completely independent, i.e., the request and response dynamic tables
reference to the local decoding header table; and header fields are are separate.
decoded without reference to the local encoding header table.
3.3. Header Table
A header table consists of a list of header fields maintained in 2.3. Indexing Tables
first-in, first-out order. The first and newest entry in a header
table is always at index 1, and the oldest entry of a header table is
at the index corresponding to the number of entries in the header
table.
The header table is initially empty. HPACK uses two tables for associating header fields to indexes. The
static table (see Section 2.3.1) is predefined and contains common
header fields (most of them with an empty value). The dynamic table
(see Section 2.3.2) is dynamic and can be used by the encoder to
index header fields repeated in the encoded header lists.
The header table can contain duplicate entries. Therefore, duplicate These two tables are combined into a single address space for
entries MUST NOT be treated as an error by a decoder. defining index values (see Section 2.3.3).
The encoder decides how to update the header table and as such can 2.3.1. Static Table
control how much memory is used by the header table. To limit the
memory requirements of the decoder, the header table size is strictly
bounded (see Section 5.1).
The header table is updated during the processing of a list of header The static table consists of a predefined static list of header
field representations (see Section 4.2). fields. Its entries are defined in Appendix A.
3.4. Header Field Representation 2.3.2. Dynamic Table
An encoded header field can be represented either as a literal or as The dynamic table consists of a list of header fields maintained in
an index. first-in, first-out order. The first and newest entry in a dynamic
table is at the lowest index, and the oldest entry of a dynamic table
is at the highest index.
A literal representation defines a new header field. The header The dynamic table is initially empty. Entries are added as each
field name can be represented literally or as a reference to an entry header block is decompressed.
of the header table. The header field value is represented
literally.
Three different literal representations are provided: The dynamic table can contain duplicate entries (i.e., entries with
the same name and same value). Therefore, duplicate entries MUST NOT
be treated as an error by a decoder.
o A literal representation that does not add the header field to the The encoder decides how to update the dynamic table and as such can
header table (see Section 7.2.2). control how much memory is used by the dynamic table. To limit the
memory requirements of the decoder, the dynamic table size is
strictly bounded (see Section 4.2).
o A literal representation that does not add the header field to the The decoder updates the dynamic table during the processing of a list
header table, with the additional stipulation that this header of header field representations (see Section 3.2).
field always use a literal representation, in particular when re-
encoded by an intermediary (see Section 7.2.3).
o A literal representation that adds the header field as a new entry 2.3.3. Index Address Space
at the beginning of the header table (see Section 7.2.1).
An indexed representation defines a header field as a reference to an The static table and the dynamic table are combined into a single
entry in either the static table or the header table (see index address space.
Section 7.1).
Indices between 1 and the length of the static table (inclusive) Indices between 1 and the length of the static table (inclusive)
refer to elements in the static table (see Appendix B). refer to elements in the static table (see Section 2.3.1).
Indices strictly greater than the length of the static table refer to Indices strictly greater than the length of the static table refer to
elements in the header table (see Section 3.3). The length of the elements in the dynamic table (see Section 2.3.2). The length of the
static table is subtracted to find the index into the header table. static table is subtracted to find the index into the dynamic table.
Indices strictly greater than the sum of the lengths of both tables Indices strictly greater than the sum of the lengths of both tables
MUST be treated as a decoding error. MUST be treated as a decoding error.
For a static table size of s and a header table size of k, the For a static table size of s and a dynamic table size of k, the
following diagram shows the entire valid index address space. following diagram shows the entire valid index address space.
<---------- Index Address Space ----------> <---------- Index Address Space ---------->
<-- Static Table --> <-- Header Table --> <-- Static Table --> <-- Dynamic Table -->
+---+-----------+---+ +---+-----------+---+ +---+-----------+---+ +---+-----------+---+
| 1 | ... | s | |s+1| ... |s+k| | 1 | ... | s | |s+1| ... |s+k|
+---+-----------+---+ +---+-----------+---+ +---+-----------+---+ +---+-----------+---+
^ | ^ |
| V | V
Insertion Point Dropping Point Insertion Point Dropping Point
Index Address Space Figure 1: Index Address Space
4. Header Block Decoding 2.4. Header Field Representation
4.1. Header Block Processing An encoded header field can be represented either as an index or as a
literal.
A decoder processes an encoded header block sequentially to An indexed representation defines a header field as a reference to an
reconstruct the original header list. entry in either the static table or the dynamic table (see
Section 6.1).
A literal representation defines a header field by specifying its
name and value. The header field name can be represented literally
or as a reference to an entry in either the static table or the
dynamic table. The header field value is represented literally.
Three different literal representations are defined:
o A literal representation that adds the header field as a new entry
at the beginning of the dynamic table (see Section 6.2.1).
o A literal representation that does not add the header field to the
dynamic table (see Section 6.2.2).
o A literal representation that does not add the header field to the
dynamic table, with the additional stipulation that this header
field always use a literal representation, in particular when re-
encoded by an intermediary (see Section 6.2.3). This
representation is intended for protecting header field values that
are not to be put at risk by compressing them (see Section 7.1.3
for more details).
The selection of one of these literal representations can be guided
by security considerations, in order to protect sensitive header
field values (see Section 7.1).
The literal representation of a header field name or of a header
field value can encode the sequence of octets either directly or
using a static Huffman code (see Section 5.2).
3. Header Block Decoding
3.1. Header Block Processing
A decoder processes a header block sequentially to reconstruct the
original header list.
A header block is the concatenation of header field representations.
The different possible header field representations are described in
Section 6.
Once a header field is decoded and added to the reconstructed header Once a header field is decoded and added to the reconstructed header
list, it cannot be removed from it. A header field added to the list, the header field cannot be removed. A header field added to
header list can be safely passed to the upper processing layer. the header list can be safely passed to the application.
By passing decoded header fields to the upper processing layer, a By passing the resulting header fields to the application, a decoder
decoder can be implemented with minimal transitory memory commitment can be implemented with minimal transitory memory commitment in
in addition to the header table. The management of memory for addition to the memory required for the dynamic table.
handling very large lists of header fields can therefore be deferred
to the upper processing layers.
4.2. Header Field Representation Processing 3.2. Header Field Representation Processing
The processing of a header block to obtain a header list is defined The processing of a header block to obtain a header list is defined
in this section. To ensure that the decoding will successfully in this section. To ensure that the decoding will successfully
produce a header list, a decoder MUST obey the following rules. produce a header list, a decoder MUST obey the following rules.
All the header field representations contained in a header block are All the header field representations contained in a header block are
processed in the order in which they appear, as specified below. processed in the order in which they appear, as specified below.
Details on the formatting of the various header field Details on the formatting of the various header field representations
representations, and some additional processing instructions are and some additional processing instructions are found in Section 6.
found in Section 7.
An _indexed representation_ entails the following actions: An _indexed representation_ entails the following actions:
o The header field corresponding to the referenced entry in either o The header field corresponding to the referenced entry in either
the static table or header table is added to the decoded header the static table or dynamic table is appended to the decoded
list. header list.
A _literal representation_ that is _not added_ to the header table A _literal representation_ that is _not added_ to the dynamic table
entails the following action: entails the following action:
o The header field is added to the decoded header list. o The header field is appended to the decoded header list.
A _literal representation_ that is _added_ to the header table A _literal representation_ that is _added_ to the dynamic table
entails the following actions: entails the following actions:
o The header field is added to the decoded header list. o The header field is appended to the decoded header list.
o The header field is inserted at the beginning of the header table.
5. Header Table Management o The header field is inserted at the beginning of the dynamic
table. This insertion could result in the eviction of previous
entries in the dynamic table (see Section 4.4).
5.1. Maximum Table Size 4. Dynamic Table Management
To limit the memory requirements on the decoder side, the header To limit the memory requirements on the decoder side, the dynamic
table is constrained in size. table is constrained in size.
The size of the header table is bounded by a maximum size defined by 4.1. Calculating Table Size
the decoder. The size of the header table MUST always be lower than
or equal to this maximum size.
By default, the maximum size of the header table is equal to the The size of the dynamic table is the sum of the size of its entries.
value of the HTTP/2 setting parameter SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE
defined by the decoder (see Section 6.5.2 of [HTTP2]). The encoder
can change this maximum size (see Section 7.3), but it MUST stay
lower than or equal to the value of SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE.
After applying an updated value of the SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE The size of an entry is the sum of its name's length in octets (as
parameter that changes the maximum size of the header table used by defined in Section 5.2), its value's length in octets, and 32.
the encoder, the encoder MUST signal this change via an encoding
context update (see Section 7.3). This encoding context update MUST
occur at the beginning of the first header block following the
SETTINGS frame sent to acknowledge the application of the updated
settings.
Several updated values for the SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE parameter The size of an entry is calculated using the length of its name and
can be acknowledged between the sending of two header blocks. In the value without any Huffman encoding applied.
case that the value is changed more that once, if a change causes the
SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE parameter to be less than the new maximum
size, the smallest value for this parameter MUST be sent before the
new maximum size, using two encoding context updates. This ensures
that the receiver is able to perform eviction based on the lower
table size.
This mechanism can be used in combination with a Note: The additional 32 octets account for an estimated overhead
SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE parameter value of 0 to completely clear associated with an entry. For example, an entry structure using
entries from the header table. two 64-bit pointers to reference the name and the value of the
entry and two 64-bit integers for counting the number of
references to the name and value would have 32 octets of overhead.
The size of the header table is the sum of the size of its entries. 4.2. Maximum Table Size
The size of an entry is the sum of its name's length in octets (as Protocols that use HPACK determine the maximum size that the encoder
defined in Section 6.2), its value's length in octets (Section 6.2), is permitted to use for the dynamic table. In HTTP/2, this value is
plus 32. determined by the SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE setting (see
Section 6.5.2 of [HTTP2]).
The size of an entry is calculated using the length of the name and An encoder can choose to use less capacity than this maximum size
value without any Huffman encoding applied. (see Section 6.3), but the chosen size MUST stay lower than or equal
to the maximum set by the protocol.
The additional 32 octets account for overhead associated with an A change in the maximum size of the dynamic table is signaled via a
entry. For example, an entry structure using two 64-bit pointers to dynamic table size update (see Section 6.3). This dynamic table size
reference the name and the value of the entry, and two 64-bit update MUST occur at the beginning of the first header block
integers for counting the number of references to the name and value following the change to the dynamic table size. In HTTP/2, this
would have 32 octets of overhead. follows a settings acknowledgment (see Section 6.5.3 of [HTTP2]).
5.2. Entry Eviction when Header Table Size Changes Multiple updates to the maximum table size can occur between the
transmission of two header blocks. In the case that this size is
changed more than once in this interval, the smallest maximum table
size that occurs in that interval MUST be signaled in a dynamic table
size update. The final maximum size is always signaled, resulting in
at most two dynamic table size updates. This ensures that the
decoder is able to perform eviction based on reductions in dynamic
table size (see Section 4.3).
Whenever the maximum size for the header table is reduced, entries This mechanism can be used to completely clear entries from the
are evicted from the end of the header table until the size of the dynamic table by setting a maximum size of 0, which can subsequently
header table is less than or equal to the maximum size. be restored.
5.3. Entry Eviction when Adding New Entries 4.3. Entry Eviction When Dynamic Table Size Changes
Whenever a new entry is to be added to the header table entries are Whenever the maximum size for the dynamic table is reduced, entries
evicted from the end of the header table until the size of the header are evicted from the end of the dynamic table until the size of the
table is less than or equal to (maximum size - new entry size), or dynamic table is less than or equal to the maximum size.
until the table is empty.
If the representation of the added entry references the name of an 4.4. Entry Eviction When Adding New Entries
entry in the header table, the referenced name is cached prior to
performing eviction to avoid having the name inadvertently evicted. Before a new entry is added to the dynamic table, entries are evicted
from the end of the dynamic table until the size of the dynamic table
is less than or equal to (maximum size - new entry size) or until the
table is empty.
If the size of the new entry is less than or equal to the maximum If the size of the new entry is less than or equal to the maximum
size, that entry is added to the table. It is not an error to size, that entry is added to the table. It is not an error to
attempt to add an entry that is larger than the maximum size; an attempt to add an entry that is larger than the maximum size; an
attempt to add an entry larger than the entire table causes the table attempt to add an entry larger than the maximum size causes the table
to be emptied of all existing entries. to be emptied of all existing entries and results in an empty table.
6. Primitive Type Representations A new entry can reference the name of an entry in the dynamic table
that will be evicted when adding this new entry into the dynamic
table. Implementations are cautioned to avoid deleting the
referenced name if the referenced entry is evicted from the dynamic
table prior to inserting the new entry.
HPACK encoding uses two primitive types: unsigned variable length 5. Primitive Type Representations
integers, and strings of octets.
6.1. Integer Representation HPACK encoding uses two primitive types: unsigned variable-length
integers and strings of octets.
Integers are used to represent name indexes, pair indexes or string 5.1. Integer Representation
lengths. To allow for optimized processing, an integer
Integers are used to represent name indexes, header field indexes, or
string lengths. An integer representation can start anywhere within
an octet. To allow for optimized processing, an integer
representation always finishes at the end of an octet. representation always finishes at the end of an octet.
An integer is represented in two parts: a prefix that fills the An integer is represented in two parts: a prefix that fills the
current octet and an optional list of octets that are used if the current octet and an optional list of octets that are used if the
integer value does not fit within the prefix. The number of bits of integer value does not fit within the prefix. The number of bits of
the prefix (called N) is a parameter of the integer representation. the prefix (called N) is a parameter of the integer representation.
The N-bit prefix allows filling the current octet. If the value is If the integer value is small enough, i.e., strictly less than 2^N-1,
small enough (strictly less than 2^N-1), it is encoded within the it is encoded within the N-bit prefix.
N-bit prefix. Otherwise all the bits of the prefix are set to 1 and
the value is encoded using an unsigned variable length integer
representation (see
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variable-length_quantity>). N is
always between 1 and 8 bits. An integer starting at an octet-
boundary will have an 8-bit prefix.
The algorithm to represent an integer I is as follows: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
| ? | ? | ? | Value |
+---+---+---+-------------------+
Figure 2: Integer Value Encoded within the Prefix (Shown for N = 5)
Otherwise, all the bits of the prefix are set to 1, and the value,
decreased by 2^N-1, is encoded using a list of one or more octets.
The most significant bit of each octet is used as a continuation
flag: its value is set to 1 except for the last octet in the list.
The remaining bits of the octets are used to encode the decreased
value.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
| ? | ? | ? | 1 1 1 1 1 |
+---+---+---+-------------------+
| 1 | Value-(2^N-1) LSB |
+---+---------------------------+
...
+---+---------------------------+
| 0 | Value-(2^N-1) MSB |
+---+---------------------------+
Figure 3: Integer Value Encoded after the Prefix (Shown for N = 5)
Decoding the integer value from the list of octets starts by
reversing the order of the octets in the list. Then, for each octet,
its most significant bit is removed. The remaining bits of the
octets are concatenated, and the resulting value is increased by
2^N-1 to obtain the integer value.
The prefix size, N, is always between 1 and 8 bits. An integer
starting at an octet boundary will have an 8-bit prefix.
Pseudocode to represent an integer I is as follows:
if I < 2^N - 1, encode I on N bits if I < 2^N - 1, encode I on N bits
else else
encode (2^N - 1) on N bits encode (2^N - 1) on N bits
I = I - (2^N - 1) I = I - (2^N - 1)
while I >= 128 while I >= 128
encode (I % 128 + 128) on 8 bits encode (I % 128 + 128) on 8 bits
I = I / 128 I = I / 128
encode I on 8 bits encode I on 8 bits
For informational purpose, the algorithm to decode an integer I is as Pseudocode to decode an integer I is as follows:
follows:
decode I from the next N bits decode I from the next N bits
if I < 2^N - 1, return I if I < 2^N - 1, return I
else else
M = 0 M = 0
repeat repeat
B = next octet B = next octet
I = I + (B & 127) * 2^M I = I + (B & 127) * 2^M
M = M + 7 M = M + 7
while B & 128 == 128 while B & 128 == 128
return I return I
Examples illustrating the encoding of integers are available in Examples illustrating the encoding of integers are available in
Appendix D.1. Appendix C.1.
This integer representation allows for values of indefinite size. It This integer representation allows for values of indefinite size. It
is also possible for an encoder to send a large number of zero is also possible for an encoder to send a large number of zero
values, which can waste octets and could be used to overflow integer values, which can waste octets and could be used to overflow integer
values. Excessively large integer encodings - in value or octet values. Integer encodings that exceed implementation limits -- in
length - MUST be treated as a decoding error. Different limits can value or octet length -- MUST be treated as decoding errors.
be set for each of the different uses of integers, based on Different limits can be set for each of the different uses of
implementation constraints. integers, based on implementation constraints.
6.2. String Literal Representation 5.2. String Literal Representation
Header field names and header field values can be represented as Header field names and header field values can be represented as
literal string. A literal string is encoded as a sequence of octets, string literals. A string literal is encoded as a sequence of
either by directly encoding the literal string's octets, or by using octets, either by directly encoding the string literal's octets or by
a Huffman code (see [HUFFMAN]). using a Huffman code (see [HUFFMAN]).
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
| H | String Length (7+) | | H | String Length (7+) |
+---+---------------------------+ +---+---------------------------+
| String Data (Length octets) | | String Data (Length octets) |
+-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+
String Literal Representation Figure 4: String Literal Representation
A literal string representation contains the following fields: A string literal representation contains the following fields:
H: A one bit flag, H, indicating whether or not the octets of the H: A one-bit flag, H, indicating whether or not the octets of the
string are Huffman encoded. string are Huffman encoded.
String Length: The number of octets used to encode the string String Length: The number of octets used to encode the string
literal, encoded as an integer with 7-bit prefix (see literal, encoded as an integer with a 7-bit prefix (see
Section 6.1). Section 5.1).
String Data: The encoded data of the string literal. If H is '0', String Data: The encoded data of the string literal. If H is '0',
then the encoded data is the raw octets of the string literal. If then the encoded data is the raw octets of the string literal. If
H is '1', then the encoded data is the Huffman encoding of the H is '1', then the encoded data is the Huffman encoding of the
string literal. string literal.
String literals which use Huffman encoding are encoded with the String literals that use Huffman encoding are encoded with the
Huffman code defined in Appendix C (see examples in Request Examples Huffman code defined in Appendix B (see examples for requests in
with Huffman Coding (Appendix D.4) and in Response Examples with Appendix C.4 and for responses in Appendix C.6). The encoded data is
Huffman Coding (Appendix D.6)). The encoded data is the bitwise the bitwise concatenation of the codes corresponding to each octet of
concatenation of the codes corresponding to each octet of the string the string literal.
literal.
As the Huffman encoded data doesn't always end at an octet boundary, As the Huffman-encoded data doesn't always end at an octet boundary,
some padding is inserted after it up to the next octet boundary. To some padding is inserted after it, up to the next octet boundary. To
prevent this padding to be misinterpreted as part of the string prevent this padding from being misinterpreted as part of the string
literal, the most significant bits of code corresponding to the EOS literal, the most significant bits of the code corresponding to the
(end-of-string) symbol are used. EOS (end-of-string) symbol are used.
Upon decoding, an incomplete code at the end of the encoded data is Upon decoding, an incomplete code at the end of the encoded data is
to be considered as padding and discarded. A padding strictly longer to be considered as padding and discarded. A padding strictly longer
than 7 bits MUST be treated as a decoding error. A padding not than 7 bits MUST be treated as a decoding error. A padding not
corresponding to the most significant bits of the code for the EOS corresponding to the most significant bits of the code for the EOS
symbol MUST be treated as a decoding error. A Huffman encoded string symbol MUST be treated as a decoding error. A Huffman-encoded string
literal containing the EOS symbol MUST be treated as a decoding literal containing the EOS symbol MUST be treated as a decoding
error. error.
7. Binary Format 6. Binary Format
This section describes the detailed format of each of the different This section describes the detailed format of each of the different
header field representations, plus the encoding context update header field representations and the dynamic table size update
instruction. instruction.
7.1. Indexed Header Field Representation 6.1. Indexed Header Field Representation
An indexed header field representation identifies an entry in either An indexed header field representation identifies an entry in either
the static table or the header table. the static table or the dynamic table (see Section 2.3).
An indexed header field representation causes a header field to be An indexed header field representation causes a header field to be
added to the decoded header list, as described in Section 4.2. added to the decoded header list, as described in Section 3.2.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
| 1 | Index (7+) | | 1 | Index (7+) |
+---+---------------------------+ +---+---------------------------+
Indexed Header Field Figure 5: Indexed Header Field
An indexed header field starts with the '1' 1-bit pattern, followed An indexed header field starts with the '1' 1-bit pattern, followed
by the index of the matching pair, represented as an integer with a by the index of the matching header field, represented as an integer
7-bit prefix (see Section 6.1). with a 7-bit prefix (see Section 5.1).
The index value of 0 is not used. It MUST be treated as a decoding The index value of 0 is not used. It MUST be treated as a decoding
error if found in an indexed header field representation. error if found in an indexed header field representation.
7.2. Literal Header Field Representation 6.2. Literal Header Field Representation
A literal header field representation contains a literal header field A literal header field representation contains a literal header field
value. Header field names are either provided as a literal or by value. Header field names are provided either as a literal or by
reference to an existing table entry, either from the static table or reference to an existing table entry, either from the static table or
the header table. the dynamic table (see Section 2.3).
A literal representation causes a header field to be added to the This specification defines three forms of literal header field
decoded header list, as described in Section 4.2. representations: with indexing, without indexing, and never indexed.
7.2.1. Literal Header Field with Incremental Indexing 6.2.1. Literal Header Field with Incremental Indexing
A literal header field with incremental indexing representation A literal header field with incremental indexing representation
results in adding a header field to the decoded header list and results in appending a header field to the decoded header list and
inserting it as a new entry into the header table. inserting it as a new entry into the dynamic table.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
| 0 | 1 | Index (6+) | | 0 | 1 | Index (6+) |
+---+---+-----------------------+ +---+---+-----------------------+
| H | Value Length (7+) | | H | Value Length (7+) |
+---+---------------------------+ +---+---------------------------+
| Value String (Length octets) | | Value String (Length octets) |
+-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+
Literal Header Field with Incremental Indexing - Figure 6: Literal Header Field with Incremental Indexing -- Indexed
Indexed Name Name
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
| 0 | 1 | 0 | | 0 | 1 | 0 |
+---+---+-----------------------+ +---+---+-----------------------+
| H | Name Length (7+) | | H | Name Length (7+) |
+---+---------------------------+ +---+---------------------------+
| Name String (Length octets) | | Name String (Length octets) |
+---+---------------------------+ +---+---------------------------+
| H | Value Length (7+) | | H | Value Length (7+) |
+---+---------------------------+ +---+---------------------------+
| Value String (Length octets) | | Value String (Length octets) |
+-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+
Literal Header Field with Incremental Indexing - Figure 7: Literal Header Field with Incremental Indexing -- New Name
New Name
A literal header field with incremental indexing representation A literal header field with incremental indexing representation
starts with the '01' 2-bit pattern. starts with the '01' 2-bit pattern.
If the header field name matches the header field name of an entry If the header field name matches the header field name of an entry
stored in the static table or the header table, the header field name stored in the static table or the dynamic table, the header field
can be represented using the index of that entry. In this case, the name can be represented using the index of that entry. In this case,
index of the entry is represented as an integer with a 6-bit prefix the index of the entry is represented as an integer with a 6-bit
(see Section 6.1). This value is always non-zero. prefix (see Section 5.1). This value is always non-zero.
Otherwise, the header field name is represented as a literal. A Otherwise, the header field name is represented as a string literal
value 0 is used in place of the 6-bit index, followed by the header (see Section 5.2). A value 0 is used in place of the 6-bit index,
field name (see Section 6.2). followed by the header field name.
Either form of header field name representation is followed by the Either form of header field name representation is followed by the
header field value represented as a literal string as described in header field value represented as a string literal (see Section 5.2).
Section 6.2.
7.2.2. Literal Header Field without Indexing 6.2.2. Literal Header Field without Indexing
A literal header field without indexing representation results in A literal header field without indexing representation results in
adding a header field to the decoded header list without altering the appending a header field to the decoded header list without altering
header table. the dynamic table.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
| 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | Index (4+) | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | Index (4+) |
+---+---+-----------------------+ +---+---+-----------------------+
| H | Value Length (7+) | | H | Value Length (7+) |
+---+---------------------------+ +---+---------------------------+
| Value String (Length octets) | | Value String (Length octets) |
+-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+
Literal Header Field without Indexing - Indexed Name Figure 8: Literal Header Field without Indexing -- Indexed Name
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
| 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |
+---+---+-----------------------+ +---+---+-----------------------+
| H | Name Length (7+) | | H | Name Length (7+) |
+---+---------------------------+ +---+---------------------------+
| Name String (Length octets) | | Name String (Length octets) |
+---+---------------------------+ +---+---------------------------+
| H | Value Length (7+) | | H | Value Length (7+) |
+---+---------------------------+ +---+---------------------------+
| Value String (Length octets) | | Value String (Length octets) |
+-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+
Literal Header Field without Indexing - New Name Figure 9: Literal Header Field without Indexing -- New Name
A literal header field without indexing representation starts with A literal header field without indexing representation starts with
the '0000' 4-bit pattern. the '0000' 4-bit pattern.
If the header field name matches the header field name of an entry If the header field name matches the header field name of an entry
stored in the static table or the header table, the header field name stored in the static table or the dynamic table, the header field
can be represented using the index of that entry. In this case, the name can be represented using the index of that entry. In this case,
index of the entry is represented as an integer with a 4-bit prefix the index of the entry is represented as an integer with a 4-bit
(see Section 6.1). This value is always non-zero. prefix (see Section 5.1). This value is always non-zero.
Otherwise, the header field name is represented as a literal. A Otherwise, the header field name is represented as a string literal
value 0 is used in place of the 4-bit index, followed by the header (see Section 5.2). A value 0 is used in place of the 4-bit index,
field name (see Section 6.2). followed by the header field name.
Either form of header field name representation is followed by the Either form of header field name representation is followed by the
header field value represented as a literal string as described in header field value represented as a string literal (see Section 5.2).
Section 6.2.
7.2.3. Literal Header Field never Indexed 6.2.3. Literal Header Field Never Indexed
A literal header field never indexed representation results in adding A literal header field never-indexed representation results in
a header field to the decoded header list without altering the header appending a header field to the decoded header list without altering
table. Intermediaries MUST use the same representation for encoding the dynamic table. Intermediaries MUST use the same representation
this header field. for encoding this header field.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
| 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | Index (4+) | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | Index (4+) |
+---+---+-----------------------+ +---+---+-----------------------+
| H | Value Length (7+) | | H | Value Length (7+) |
+---+---------------------------+ +---+---------------------------+
| Value String (Length octets) | | Value String (Length octets) |
+-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+
Literal Header Field never Indexed - Indexed Name Figure 10: Literal Header Field Never Indexed -- Indexed Name
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
| 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 |
+---+---+-----------------------+ +---+---+-----------------------+
| H | Name Length (7+) | | H | Name Length (7+) |
+---+---------------------------+ +---+---------------------------+
| Name String (Length octets) | | Name String (Length octets) |
+---+---------------------------+ +---+---------------------------+
| H | Value Length (7+) | | H | Value Length (7+) |
+---+---------------------------+ +---+---------------------------+
| Value String (Length octets) | | Value String (Length octets) |
+-------------------------------+ +-------------------------------+
Literal Header Field never Indexed - New Name Figure 11: Literal Header Field Never Indexed -- New Name
A literal header field never indexed representation starts with the A literal header field never-indexed representation starts with the
'0001' 4-bit pattern. '0001' 4-bit pattern.
When a header field is represented as a literal header field never When a header field is represented as a literal header field never
indexed, it MUST always be encoded with this specific literal indexed, it MUST always be encoded with this specific literal
representation. In particular, when a peer sends a header field that representation. In particular, when a peer sends a header field that
it received represented as a literal header field never indexed, it it received represented as a literal header field never indexed, it
MUST use the same representation to forward this header field. MUST use the same representation to forward this header field.
This representation is intended for protecting header field values This representation is intended for protecting header field values
that are not to be put at risk by compressing them (see Section 8.1 that are not to be put at risk by compressing them (see Section 7.1
for more details). for more details).
The encoding of the representation is identical to the literal header The encoding of the representation is identical to the literal header
field without indexing (see Section 7.2.2). field without indexing (see Section 6.2.2).
7.3. Header Table Size Update 6.3. Dynamic Table Size Update
A header table size update signals a change to the size of the header A dynamic table size update signals a change to the size of the
table. dynamic table.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
| 0 | 0 | 1 | Max size (5+) | | 0 | 0 | 1 | Max size (5+) |
+---+---------------------------+ +---+---------------------------+
Maximum Header Table Size Change Figure 12: Maximum Dynamic Table Size Change
A header table size update starts with the '001' 3-bit pattern, A dynamic table size update starts with the '001' 3-bit pattern,
followed by the new maximum size, represented as an integer with a followed by the new maximum size, represented as an integer with a
5-bit prefix (see Section 6.1). 5-bit prefix (see Section 5.1).
The new maximum size MUST be lower than or equal to the maximum set The new maximum size MUST be lower than or equal to the limit
by the decoder. That is, the value of the HTTP/2 setting parameter determined by the protocol using HPACK. A value that exceeds this
SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE, defined in Section 6.5.2 of [HTTP2]. limit MUST be treated as a decoding error. In HTTP/2, this limit is
the last value of the SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE parameter (see
Section 6.5.2 of [HTTP2]) received from the decoder and acknowledged
by the encoder (see Section 6.5.3 of [HTTP2]).
Reducing the maximum size of the header table causes entries to be Reducing the maximum size of the dynamic table can cause entries to
evicted (see Section 5.2). be evicted (see Section 4.3).
8. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
This section describes potential areas of security concern with This section describes potential areas of security concern with
HPACK: HPACK:
o Use of compression as a length-based oracle for verifying guesses o Use of compression as a length-based oracle for verifying guesses
about secrets that are compressed into a shared compression about secrets that are compressed into a shared compression
context. context.
o Denial of service resulting from exhausting processing or memory o Denial of service resulting from exhausting processing or memory
capacity at a decoder. capacity at a decoder.
8.1. Probing Header Table State 7.1. Probing Dynamic Table State
HPACK reduces the length of header field encodings by exploiting the HPACK reduces the length of header field encodings by exploiting the
redundancy inherent in protocols like HTTP. The ultimate goal of redundancy inherent in protocols like HTTP. The ultimate goal of
this is to reduce the amount of data that is required to send HTTP this is to reduce the amount of data that is required to send HTTP
requests or responses. requests or responses.
The compression context used to encode header fields can be probed by The compression context used to encode header fields can be probed by
an attacker that has the following capabilities: to define header an attacker who can both define header fields to be encoded and
fields to be encoded and transmitted; and to observe the length of transmitted and observe the length of those fields once they are
those fields once they are encoded. This allows an attacker to encoded. When an attacker can do both, they can adaptively modify
adaptively modify requests in order to confirm guesses about the requests in order to confirm guesses about the dynamic table state.
header table state. If a guess is compressed into a shorter length, If a guess is compressed into a shorter length, the attacker can
the attacker can observe the encoded length and infer that the guess observe the encoded length and infer that the guess was correct.
was correct.
This is possible because while TLS provides confidentiality This is possible even over the Transport Layer Security (TLS)
protocol (see [TLS12]), because while TLS provides confidentiality
protection for content, it only provides a limited amount of protection for content, it only provides a limited amount of
protection for the length of that content. protection for the length of that content.
Note: Padding schemes only provide limited protection against an Note: Padding schemes only provide limited protection against an
attacker with these capabilities, potentially only forcing an attacker with these capabilities, potentially only forcing an
increased number of guesses to learn the length associated with a increased number of guesses to learn the length associated with a
given guess. Padding schemes also work directly against given guess. Padding schemes also work directly against
compression by increasing the number of bits that are transmitted. compression by increasing the number of bits that are transmitted.
Attacks like CRIME [CRIME] demonstrated the existence of these Attacks like CRIME [CRIME] demonstrated the existence of these
general attacker capabilities. The specific attack exploited the general attacker capabilities. The specific attack exploited the
fact that DEFLATE [DEFLATE] removes redundancy based on prefix fact that DEFLATE [DEFLATE] removes redundancy based on prefix
matching. This permitted the attacker to confirm guesses a character matching. This permitted the attacker to confirm guesses a character
at a time, reducing an exponential-time attack into a constant time at a time, reducing an exponential-time attack into a linear-time
attack. attack.
8.1.1. Applicability to HPACK and HTTP 7.1.1. Applicability to HPACK and HTTP
HPACK mitigates but does not completely prevent attacks modelled on HPACK mitigates but does not completely prevent attacks modeled on
CRIME [CRIME] by forcing a guess to match an entire header field CRIME [CRIME] by forcing a guess to match an entire header field
value, rather than individual characters. An attacker can only learn value rather than individual characters. Attackers can only learn
whether a guess is correct or not, so is reduced to a brute force whether a guess is correct or not, so they are reduced to brute-force
guess for the header field values. guesses for the header field values.
The viability of recovering specific header field values therefore The viability of recovering specific header field values therefore
depends on the entropy of values. As a result, values with high depends on the entropy of values. As a result, values with high
entropy are unlikely to be recovered successfully. However, values entropy are unlikely to be recovered successfully. However, values
with low entropy remain vulnerable. with low entropy remain vulnerable.
Attacks of this nature are possible any time that two mutually Attacks of this nature are possible any time that two mutually
distrustful entities control requests or responses that are placed distrustful entities control requests or responses that are placed
onto a single HTTP/2 connection. If the shared HPACK compressor onto a single HTTP/2 connection. If the shared HPACK compressor
permits one entity to add entries to the header table, and the other permits one entity to add entries to the dynamic table and the other
to access those entries, then the state of the table can be learned. to access those entries, then the state of the table can be learned.
Having requests or responses from mutually distrustful entities Having requests or responses from mutually distrustful entities
occurs when an intermediary either: occurs when an intermediary either:
o sends requests from multiple clients on a single connection toward o sends requests from multiple clients on a single connection toward
an origin server, or an origin server, or
o takes responses from multiple origin servers and places them on a o takes responses from multiple origin servers and places them on a
shared connection toward a client. shared connection toward a client.
Web browsers also need to assume that requests made on the same Web browsers also need to assume that requests made on the same
connection by different web origins [ORIGIN] are made by mutually connection by different web origins [ORIGIN] are made by mutually
distrustful entities. distrustful entities.
8.1.2. Mitigation 7.1.2. Mitigation
Users of HTTP that require confidentiality for header fields can use Users of HTTP that require confidentiality for header fields can use
values with entropy sufficient to make guessing infeasible. However, values with entropy sufficient to make guessing infeasible. However,
this is impractical as a general solution because it forces all users this is impractical as a general solution because it forces all users
of HTTP to take steps to mitigate attacks. It would impose new of HTTP to take steps to mitigate attacks. It would impose new
constraints on how HTTP is used. constraints on how HTTP is used.
Rather than impose constraints on users of HTTP, an implementation of Rather than impose constraints on users of HTTP, an implementation of
HPACK can instead constrain how compression is applied in order to HPACK can instead constrain how compression is applied in order to
limit the potential for header table probing. limit the potential for dynamic table probing.
An ideal solution segregates access to the header table based on the An ideal solution segregates access to the dynamic table based on the
entity that is constructing header fields. Header field values that entity that is constructing header fields. Header field values that
are added to the table are attributed to an entity, and only the are added to the table are attributed to an entity, and only the
entity that created an particular value can extract that value. entity that created a particular value can extract that value.
To improve compression performance of this option, certain entries To improve compression performance of this option, certain entries
might be tagged as being public. For example, a web browser might might be tagged as being public. For example, a web browser might
make the values of the Accept-Encoding header field available in all make the values of the Accept-Encoding header field available in all
requests. requests.
An encoder without good knowledge of the provenance of header fields An encoder without good knowledge of the provenance of header fields
might instead introduce a penalty for bad guesses, such that attempts might instead introduce a penalty for a header field with many
to guess a header field value results in all values being removed different values, such that a large number of attempts to guess a
from consideration in all future requests, effectively preventing header field value results in the header field no longer being
further guesses. compared to the dynamic table entries in future messages, effectively
preventing further guesses.
Note: Simply removing values from the header table can be Note: Simply removing entries corresponding to the header field
ineffectual if the attacker has a reliable way of causing values from the dynamic table can be ineffectual if the attacker has a
to be reinstalled. For example, a request to load an image in a reliable way of causing values to be reinstalled. For example, a
web browser typically includes the Cookie header field (a request to load an image in a web browser typically includes the
potentially highly valued target for this sort of attack), and web Cookie header field (a potentially highly valued target for this
sites can easily force an image to be loaded, thereby refreshing sort of attack), and web sites can easily force an image to be
the entry in the header table. loaded, thereby refreshing the entry in the dynamic table.
This response might be made inversely proportional to the length of This response might be made inversely proportional to the length of
the header field. Marking as inaccessible might occur for shorter the header field value. Marking a header field as not using the
values more quickly or with higher probability than for longer dynamic table anymore might occur for shorter values more quickly or
values. with higher probability than for longer values.
Implementations might also choose to protect certain header fields 7.1.3. Never-Indexed Literals
that are known to be highly valued, such as the Authorization or
Cookie header fields, by disabling or further limiting compression.
8.1.3. Never Indexed Literals Implementations can also choose to protect sensitive header fields by
not compressing them and instead encoding their value as literals.
Refusing to generate an indexed representation for a header field is Refusing to generate an indexed representation for a header field is
only effective if compression is avoided on all hops. The new only effective if compression is avoided on all hops. The never-
indexed literal (see Section 7.2.3) can be used to signal to indexed literal (see Section 6.2.3) can be used to signal to
intermediaries that a particular value was intentionally sent as a intermediaries that a particular value was intentionally sent as a
literal. An intermediary MUST NOT re-encode a value that uses the literal.
never indexed literal as an indexed representation.
8.2. Static Huffman Encoding An intermediary MUST NOT re-encode a value that uses the never-
indexed literal representation with another representation that would
index it. If HPACK is used for re-encoding, the never-indexed
literal representation MUST be used.
There is currently no known threat taking advantage of the use of a The choice to use a never-indexed literal representation for a header
fixed Huffman encoding. A study has shown that using a fixed Huffman field depends on several factors. Since HPACK doesn't protect
encoding table created an information leakage, however this same against guessing an entire header field value, short or low-entropy
study concluded that an attacker could not take advantage of this values are more readily recovered by an adversary. Therefore, an
information leakage to recover any meaningful amount of information encoder might choose not to index values with low entropy.
(see [PETAL]).
8.3. Memory Consumption An encoder might also choose not to index values for header fields
that are considered to be highly valuable or sensitive to recovery,
such as the Cookie or Authorization header fields.
On the contrary, an encoder might prefer indexing values for header
fields that have little or no value if they were exposed. For
instance, a User-Agent header field does not commonly vary between
requests and is sent to any server. In that case, confirmation that
a particular User-Agent value has been used provides little value.
Note that these criteria for deciding to use a never-indexed literal
representation will evolve over time as new attacks are discovered.
7.2. Static Huffman Encoding
There is no currently known attack against a static Huffman encoding.
A study has shown that using a static Huffman encoding table created
an information leakage; however, this same study concluded that an
attacker could not take advantage of this information leakage to
recover any meaningful amount of information (see [PETAL]).
7.3. Memory Consumption
An attacker can try to cause an endpoint to exhaust its memory. An attacker can try to cause an endpoint to exhaust its memory.
HPACK is designed to limit both the peak and state amounts of memory HPACK is designed to limit both the peak and state amounts of memory
allocated by an endpoint. allocated by an endpoint.
The amount of memory used by the compressor state is limited by the The amount of memory used by the compressor is limited by the
decoder using the value of the HTTP/2 setting parameter protocol using HPACK through the definition of the maximum size of
SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE (see Section 6.5.2 of [HTTP2]). This the dynamic table. In HTTP/2, this value is controlled by the
limit takes into account both the size of the data stored in the decoder through the setting parameter SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE (see
header table, plus a small allowance for overhead. Section 6.5.2 of [HTTP2]). This limit takes into account both the
size of the data stored in the dynamic table, plus a small allowance
for overhead.
A decoder can limit the amount of state memory used by setting an A decoder can limit the amount of state memory used by setting an
appropriate value for the SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE parameter. An appropriate value for the maximum size of the dynamic table. In
encoder can limit the amount of state memory it uses by signalling HTTP/2, this is realized by setting an appropriate value for the
lower header table size than the decoder allows (see Section 7.3). SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE parameter. An encoder can limit the
amount of state memory it uses by signaling a lower dynamic table
size than the decoder allows (see Section 6.3).
The amount of temporary memory consumed by an encoder or decoder can The amount of temporary memory consumed by an encoder or decoder can
be limited by processing header fields sequentially. An be limited by processing header fields sequentially. An
implementation does not need to retain a complete list of header implementation does not need to retain a complete list of header
fields. Note however that it might be necessary for an application fields. Note, however, that it might be necessary for an application
to retain a complete header list for other reasons; even though HPACK to retain a complete header list for other reasons; even though HPACK
does not force this to occur, application constraints might make this does not force this to occur, application constraints might make this
necessary. necessary.
8.4. Implementation Limits 7.4. Implementation Limits
An implementation of HPACK needs to ensure that large values for An implementation of HPACK needs to ensure that large values for
integers, long encoding for integers, or long string literals do not integers, long encoding for integers, or long string literals do not
create security weaknesses. create security weaknesses.
An implementation has to set a limit for the values it accepts for An implementation has to set a limit for the values it accepts for
integers, as well as for the encoded length (see Section 6.1). In integers, as well as for the encoded length (see Section 5.1). In
the same way, it has to set a limit to the length it accepts for the same way, it has to set a limit to the length it accepts for
string literals (see Section 6.2). string literals (see Section 5.2).
9. Acknowledgements
This document includes substantial input from the following
individuals:
o Mike Bishop, Jeff Pinner, Julian Reschke, Martin Thomson
(substantial editorial contributions).
o Johnny Graettinger (Huffman code statistics).
10. References
10.1. Normative References
[HTTP2] Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, Ed., "Hypertext
Transfer Protocol version 2",
draft-ietf-httpbis-http2-14 (work in progress),
July 2014.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC7230] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext
Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and
Routing", RFC 7230, June 2014.
10.2. Informative References
[CANONICAL] Schwartz, E. and B. Kallick, "Generating a canonical
prefix encoding", Communications of the ACM Volume 7
Issue 3, pp. 166-169, March 1964,
<https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=363991>.
[CRIME] Rizzo, J. and T. Duong, "The CRIME Attack",
September 2012, <https://docs.google.com/a/twist.com/
presentation/d/
11eBmGiHbYcHR9gL5nDyZChu_-lCa2GizeuOfaLU2HOU/
edit#slide=id.g1eb6c1b5_3_6>.
[DEFLATE] Deutsch, P., "DEFLATE Compressed Data Format
Specification version 1.3", RFC 1951, May 1996.
[HUFFMAN] Huffman, D., "A Method for the Construction of Minimum
Redundancy Codes", Proceedings of the Institute of
Radio Engineers Volume 40, Number 9, pp. 1098-1101,
September 1952, <https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/
articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=4051119>.
[ORIGIN] Barth, A., "The Web Origin Concept", RFC 6454,
December 2011.
[PETAL] Tan, J. and J. Nahata, "PETAL: Preset Encoding Table
Information Leakage", April 2013, <http://
www.pdl.cmu.edu/PDL-FTP/associated/
CMU-PDL-13-106.pdf>.
[SPDY] Belshe, M. and R. Peon, "SPDY Protocol",
draft-mbelshe-httpbis-spdy-00 (work in progress),
February 2012.
[SPDY-DESC-1] Belshe, M., "IETF83: SPDY and What to Consider for
HTTP/2.0", March 2012, <https://www.ietf.org/
proceedings/83/slides/slides-83-httpbis-3>.
[SPDY-DESC-2] McManus, P., "SPDY: What I Like About You",
September 2011, <https://bitsup.blogspot.com/2011/09/
spdy-what-i-like-about-you.html>.
Appendix A. Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)
A.1. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-08
o Removed the reference set.
o Removed header emission.
o Explicit handling of several SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE parameter
changes.
o Changed header set to header list, and forced ordering.
o Updated examples.
o Exchanged header and static table positions.
A.2. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-07
o Removed old text on index value of 0.
o Added clarification for signalling of maximum table size after a
SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE update.
o Rewrote security considerations.
o Many editorial clarifications or improvements.
o Added convention section.
o Reworked document's outline.
o Updated static table. Entry 16 has now "gzip, deflate" for value.
o Updated Huffman table, using data set provided by Google.
A.3. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-06
o Updated format to include literal headers that must never be
compressed.
o Updated security considerations.
o Moved integer encoding examples to the appendix.
o Updated Huffman table.
o Updated static header table (adding and removing status values).
o Updated examples.
A.4. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-05
o Regenerated examples.
o Only one Huffman table for requests and responses.
o Added maximum size for header table, independent of
SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE.
o Added pseudo-code for integer decoding.
o Improved examples (removing unnecessary removals).
A.5. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-04
o Updated examples: take into account changes in the spec, and show
more features.
o Use 'octet' everywhere instead of having both 'byte' and 'octet'.
o Added reference set emptying.
o Editorial changes and clarifications.
o Added "host" header to the static table.
o Ordering for list of values (either NULL- or comma-separated).
A.6. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-03
o A large number of editorial changes; changed the description of
evicting/adding new entries.
o Removed substitution indexing
o Changed 'initial headers' to 'static headers', as per issue #258
o Merged 'request' and 'response' static headers, as per issue #259
o Changed text to indicate that new headers are added at index 0 and
expire from the largest index, as per issue #233
A.7. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-02
o Corrected error in integer encoding pseudocode.
A.8. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-01
o Refactored of Header Encoding Section: split definitions and
processing rule.
o Backward incompatible change: Updated reference set management as 8. References
per issue #214. This changes how the interaction between the
reference set and eviction works. This also changes the working
of the reference set in some specific cases.
o Backward incompatible change: modified initial header list, as per 8.1. Normative References
issue #188.
o Added example of 32 octets entry structure (issue #191). [HTTP2] Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, Ed., "Hypertext
Transfer Protocol Version 2 (HTTP/2)", RFC 7540,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7540, May 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7540>.
o Added Header Set Completion section. Reflowed some text. [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Clarified some writing which was akward. Added text about Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
duplicate header entry encoding. Clarified some language w.r.t DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
Header Set. Changed x-my-header to mynewheader. Added text in the <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
HeaderEmission section indicating that the application may also be
able to free up memory more quickly. Added information in
Security Considerations section.
A.9. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-header-compression-00 [RFC7230] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing",
RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>.
Fixed bug/omission in integer representation algorithm. 8.2. Informative References
Changed the document title. [CANONICAL]
Schwartz, E. and B. Kallick, "Generating a canonical
prefix encoding", Communications of the ACM, Volume 7
Issue 3, pp. 166-169, March 1964, <https://dl.acm.org/
citation.cfm?id=363991>.
Header matching text rewritten. [CRIME] Wikipedia, "CRIME", May 2015, <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/
index.php?title=CRIME&oldid=660948120>.
Changed the definition of header emission. [DEFLATE] Deutsch, P., "DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification
version 1.3", RFC 1951, DOI 10.17487/RFC1951, May 1996,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1951>.
Changed the name of the setting which dictates how much memory the [HUFFMAN] Huffman, D., "A Method for the Construction of Minimum-
compression context should use. Redundancy Codes", Proceedings of the Institute of Radio
Engineers, Volume 40, Number 9, pp. 1098-1101, September
1952, <http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/
articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=4051119>.
Removed "specific use cases" section [ORIGIN] Barth, A., "The Web Origin Concept", RFC 6454,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6454, December 2011,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6454>.
Corrected erroneous statement about what index can be contained in [PETAL] Tan, J. and J. Nahata, "PETAL: Preset Encoding
one octet Table Information Leakage", April 2013,
<http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/PDL-FTP/associated/
CMU-PDL-13-106.pdf>.
Added descriptions of opcodes [SPDY] Belshe, M. and R. Peon, "SPDY Protocol", draft-mbelshe-
httpbis-spdy-00 (work in progress), February 2012.
Removed security claims from introduction. [TLS12] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
(TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.
Appendix B. Static Table Appendix A. Static Table Definition
The static table consists of an unchangeable ordered list of (name, The static table (see Section 2.3.1) consists in a predefined and
value) pairs. The first entry in the table is always represented by unchangeable list of header fields.
the index len(header table) + 1, and the last entry in the table is
represented by the index len(header table) + len(static table).
The static table was created by listing the most common header fields The static table was created from the most frequent header fields
that are valid for messages exchanged inside a HTTP/2 connection. used by popular web sites, with the addition of HTTP/2-specific
For header fields with a few frequent values, an entry was added for pseudo-header fields (see Section 8.1.2.1 of [HTTP2]). For header
each of these frequent values. For other header fields, an entry was fields with a few frequent values, an entry was added for each of
added with an empty value. these frequent values. For other header fields, an entry was added
with an empty value.
The following table lists the pre-defined header fields that make-up Table 1 lists the predefined header fields that make up the static
the static table. table and gives the index of each entry.
+-------+-----------------------------+---------------+ +-------+-----------------------------+---------------+
| Index | Header Name | Header Value | | Index | Header Name | Header Value |
+-------+-----------------------------+---------------+ +-------+-----------------------------+---------------+
| 1 | :authority | | | 1 | :authority | |
| 2 | :method | GET | | 2 | :method | GET |
| 3 | :method | POST | | 3 | :method | POST |
| 4 | :path | / | | 4 | :path | / |
| 5 | :path | /index.html | | 5 | :path | /index.html |
| 6 | :scheme | http | | 6 | :scheme | http |
skipping to change at page 27, line 24 skipping to change at page 25, line 39
| 56 | strict-transport-security | | | 56 | strict-transport-security | |
| 57 | transfer-encoding | | | 57 | transfer-encoding | |
| 58 | user-agent | | | 58 | user-agent | |
| 59 | vary | | | 59 | vary | |
| 60 | via | | | 60 | via | |
| 61 | www-authenticate | | | 61 | www-authenticate | |
+-------+-----------------------------+---------------+ +-------+-----------------------------+---------------+
Table 1: Static Table Entries Table 1: Static Table Entries
Table 1 gives the index of each entry in the static table. The full Appendix B. Huffman Code
index of each entry, to be used for encoding a reference to this
entry, is computed by adding the number of entries in the header
table to this index.
Appendix C. Huffman Code
The following Huffman code is used when encoding string literals with The following Huffman code is used when encoding string literals with
a Huffman coding (see Section 6.2). a Huffman coding (see Section 5.2).
This Huffman code was generated from statistics obtained on a large This Huffman code was generated from statistics obtained on a large
sample of HTTP headers. It is a canonical Huffman code (see sample of HTTP headers. It is a canonical Huffman code (see
[CANONICAL]) with some tweaking to ensure that no symbol has a unique [CANONICAL]) with some tweaking to ensure that no symbol has a unique
code length. code length.
Each row in the table defines the code used to represent a symbol: Each row in the table defines the code used to represent a symbol:
sym: The symbol to be represented. It is the decimal value of an sym: The symbol to be represented. It is the decimal value of an
octet, possibly prepended with its ASCII representation. A octet, possibly prepended with its ASCII representation. A
skipping to change at page 28, line 12 skipping to change at page 26, line 20
code as bits: The Huffman code for the symbol represented as a code as bits: The Huffman code for the symbol represented as a
base-2 integer, aligned on the most significant bit (MSB). base-2 integer, aligned on the most significant bit (MSB).
code as hex: The Huffman code for the symbol, represented as a code as hex: The Huffman code for the symbol, represented as a
hexadecimal integer, aligned on the least significant bit (LSB). hexadecimal integer, aligned on the least significant bit (LSB).
len: The number of bits for the code representing the symbol. len: The number of bits for the code representing the symbol.
As an example, the code for the symbol 47 (corresponding to the ASCII As an example, the code for the symbol 47 (corresponding to the ASCII
character "/") consists in the 6 bits "0", "1", "1", "0", "0", "0". character "/") consists in the 6 bits "0", "1", "1", "0", "0", "0".
This corresponds to the value 0x18 (in hexadecimal) encoded on 6 This corresponds to the value 0x18 (in hexadecimal) encoded in 6
bits. bits.
code code
code as bits as hex len code as bits as hex len
sym aligned to MSB aligned in sym aligned to MSB aligned in
to LSB bits to LSB bits
( 0) |11111111|11000 1ff8 [13] ( 0) |11111111|11000 1ff8 [13]
( 1) |11111111|11111111|1011000 7fffd8 [23] ( 1) |11111111|11111111|1011000 7fffd8 [23]
( 2) |11111111|11111111|11111110|0010 fffffe2 [28] ( 2) |11111111|11111111|11111110|0010 fffffe2 [28]
( 3) |11111111|11111111|11111110|0011 fffffe3 [28] ( 3) |11111111|11111111|11111110|0011 fffffe3 [28]
( 4) |11111111|11111111|11111110|0100 fffffe4 [28] ( 4) |11111111|11111111|11111110|0100 fffffe4 [28]
( 5) |11111111|11111111|11111110|0101 fffffe5 [28] ( 5) |11111111|11111111|11111110|0101 fffffe5 [28]
( 6) |11111111|11111111|11111110|0110 fffffe6 [28] ( 6) |11111111|11111111|11111110|0110 fffffe6 [28]
( 7) |11111111|11111111|11111110|0111 fffffe7 [28] ( 7) |11111111|11111111|11111110|0111 fffffe7 [28]
( 8) |11111111|11111111|11111110|1000 fffffe8 [28] ( 8) |11111111|11111111|11111110|1000 fffffe8 [28]
( 9) |11111111|11111111|11101010 ffffea [24] ( 9) |11111111|11111111|11101010 ffffea [24]
skipping to change at page 33, line 36 skipping to change at page 31, line 44
(248) |11111111|11111111|11111101|011 7ffffeb [27] (248) |11111111|11111111|11111101|011 7ffffeb [27]
(249) |11111111|11111111|11111111|1110 ffffffe [28] (249) |11111111|11111111|11111111|1110 ffffffe [28]
(250) |11111111|11111111|11111101|100 7ffffec [27] (250) |11111111|11111111|11111101|100 7ffffec [27]
(251) |11111111|11111111|11111101|101 7ffffed [27] (251) |11111111|11111111|11111101|101 7ffffed [27]
(252) |11111111|11111111|11111101|110 7ffffee [27] (252) |11111111|11111111|11111101|110 7ffffee [27]
(253) |11111111|11111111|11111101|111 7ffffef [27] (253) |11111111|11111111|11111101|111 7ffffef [27]
(254) |11111111|11111111|11111110|000 7fffff0 [27] (254) |11111111|11111111|11111110|000 7fffff0 [27]
(255) |11111111|11111111|11111011|10 3ffffee [26] (255) |11111111|11111111|11111011|10 3ffffee [26]
EOS (256) |11111111|11111111|11111111|111111 3fffffff [30] EOS (256) |11111111|11111111|11111111|111111 3fffffff [30]
Appendix D. Examples Appendix C. Examples
A number of examples are worked through here, covering integer This appendix contains examples covering integer encoding, header
encoding, header field representation, and the encoding of whole field representation, and the encoding of whole lists of header
lists of header fields, for both requests and responses, and with and fields for both requests and responses, with and without Huffman
without Huffman coding. coding.
D.1. Integer Representation Examples C.1. Integer Representation Examples
This section shows the representation of integer values in details This section shows the representation of integer values in detail
(see Section 6.1). (see Section 5.1).
D.1.1. Example 1: Encoding 10 Using a 5-bit Prefix C.1.1. Example 1: Encoding 10 Using a 5-Bit Prefix
The value 10 is to be encoded with a 5-bit prefix. The value 10 is to be encoded with a 5-bit prefix.
o 10 is less than 31 (2^5 - 1) and is represented using the 5-bit o 10 is less than 31 (2^5 - 1) and is represented using the 5-bit
prefix. prefix.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
| X | X | X | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 10 stored on 5 bits | X | X | X | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 10 stored on 5 bits
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
D.1.2. Example 2: Encoding 1337 Using a 5-bit Prefix C.1.2. Example 2: Encoding 1337 Using a 5-Bit Prefix
The value I=1337 is to be encoded with a 5-bit prefix. The value I=1337 is to be encoded with a 5-bit prefix.
1337 is greater than 31 (2^5 - 1). 1337 is greater than 31 (2^5 - 1).
The 5-bit prefix is filled with its max value (31). The 5-bit prefix is filled with its max value (31).
I = 1337 - (2^5 - 1) = 1306. I = 1337 - (2^5 - 1) = 1306.
I (1306) is greater than or equal to 128, the while loop body I (1306) is greater than or equal to 128, so the while loop
executes: body executes:
I % 128 == 26 I % 128 == 26
26 + 128 == 154 26 + 128 == 154
154 is encoded in 8 bits as: 10011010 154 is encoded in 8 bits as: 10011010
I is set to 10 (1306 / 128 == 10) I is set to 10 (1306 / 128 == 10)
I is no longer greater than or equal to 128, the while loop I is no longer greater than or equal to 128, so the while
terminates. loop terminates.
I, now 10, is encoded on 8 bits as: 00001010. I, now 10, is encoded in 8 bits as: 00001010.
The process ends. The process ends.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
| X | X | X | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | Prefix = 31, I = 1306 | X | X | X | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | Prefix = 31, I = 1306
| 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1306>=128, encode(154), I=1306/128 | 1 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1306>=128, encode(154), I=1306/128
| 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 10<128, encode(10), done | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 10<128, encode(10), done
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
D.1.3. Example 3: Encoding 42 Starting at an Octet Boundary C.1.3. Example 3: Encoding 42 Starting at an Octet Boundary
The value 42 is to be encoded starting at an octet-boundary. This The value 42 is to be encoded starting at an octet boundary. This
implies that a 8-bit prefix is used. implies that a 8-bit prefix is used.
o 42 is less than 255 (2^8 - 1) and is represented using the 8-bit o 42 is less than 255 (2^8 - 1) and is represented using the 8-bit
prefix. prefix.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
| 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 42 stored on 8 bits | 0 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | 42 stored on 8 bits
+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
D.2. Header Field Representation Examples C.2. Header Field Representation Examples
This section shows several independent representation examples. This section shows several independent representation examples.
D.2.1. Literal Header Field with Indexing C.2.1. Literal Header Field with Indexing
The header field representation uses a literal name and a literal The header field representation uses a literal name and a literal
value. The header field is added to the header table. value. The header field is added to the dynamic table.
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
custom-key: custom-header custom-key: custom-header
Hex dump of encoded data: Hex dump of encoded data:
400a 6375 7374 6f6d 2d6b 6579 0d63 7573 | @.custom-key.cus 400a 6375 7374 6f6d 2d6b 6579 0d63 7573 | @.custom-key.cus
746f 6d2d 6865 6164 6572 | tom-header 746f 6d2d 6865 6164 6572 | tom-header
Decoding process: Decoding process:
40 | == Literal indexed == 40 | == Literal indexed ==
0a | Literal name (len = 10) 0a | Literal name (len = 10)
6375 7374 6f6d 2d6b 6579 | custom-key 6375 7374 6f6d 2d6b 6579 | custom-key
0d | Literal value (len = 13) 0d | Literal value (len = 13)
6375 7374 6f6d 2d68 6561 6465 72 | custom-header 6375 7374 6f6d 2d68 6561 6465 72 | custom-header
| -> custom-key: custom-head\ | -> custom-key:
| er | custom-header
Header Table (after decoding): Dynamic Table (after decoding):
[ 1] (s = 55) custom-key: custom-header [ 1] (s = 55) custom-key: custom-header
Table size: 55 Table size: 55
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
custom-key: custom-header custom-key: custom-header
D.2.2. Literal Header Field without Indexing C.2.2. Literal Header Field without Indexing
The header field representation uses an indexed name and a literal The header field representation uses an indexed name and a literal
value. The header field is not added to the header table. value. The header field is not added to the dynamic table.
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
:path: /sample/path :path: /sample/path
Hex dump of encoded data: Hex dump of encoded data:
040c 2f73 616d 706c 652f 7061 7468 | ../sample/path 040c 2f73 616d 706c 652f 7061 7468 | ../sample/path
Decoding process: Decoding process:
04 | == Literal not indexed == 04 | == Literal not indexed ==
| Indexed name (idx = 4) | Indexed name (idx = 4)
| :path | :path
0c | Literal value (len = 12) 0c | Literal value (len = 12)
2f73 616d 706c 652f 7061 7468 | /sample/path 2f73 616d 706c 652f 7061 7468 | /sample/path
| -> :path: /sample/path | -> :path: /sample/path
Header table (after decoding): empty. Dynamic table (after decoding): empty.
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
:path: /sample/path :path: /sample/path
D.2.3. Literal Header Field never Indexed C.2.3. Literal Header Field Never Indexed
The header field representation uses a literal name and a literal The header field representation uses a literal name and a literal
value. The header field is not added to the header table, and must value. The header field is not added to the dynamic table and must
use the same representation if re-encoded by an intermediary. use the same representation if re-encoded by an intermediary.
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
password: secret password: secret
Hex dump of encoded data: Hex dump of encoded data:
1008 7061 7373 776f 7264 0673 6563 7265 | ..password.secre 1008 7061 7373 776f 7264 0673 6563 7265 | ..password.secre
74 | t 74 | t
Decoding process: Decoding process:
10 | == Literal never indexed == 10 | == Literal never indexed ==
08 | Literal name (len = 8) 08 | Literal name (len = 8)
7061 7373 776f 7264 | password 7061 7373 776f 7264 | password
06 | Literal value (len = 6) 06 | Literal value (len = 6)
7365 6372 6574 | secret 7365 6372 6574 | secret
| -> password: secret | -> password: secret
Header table (after decoding): empty. Dynamic table (after decoding): empty.
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
password: secret password: secret
D.2.4. Indexed Header Field C.2.4. Indexed Header Field
The header field representation uses an indexed header field, from The header field representation uses an indexed header field from the
the static table. static table.
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
:method: GET :method: GET
Hex dump of encoded data: Hex dump of encoded data:
82 | . 82 | .
Decoding process: Decoding process:
82 | == Indexed - Add == 82 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 2 | idx = 2
| -> :method: GET | -> :method: GET
Header table (after decoding): empty. Dynamic table (after decoding): empty.
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
:method: GET :method: GET
D.3. Request Examples without Huffman Coding C.3. Request Examples without Huffman Coding
This section shows several consecutive header lists, corresponding to This section shows several consecutive header lists, corresponding to
HTTP requests, on the same connection. HTTP requests, on the same connection.
D.3.1. First Request C.3.1. First Request
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
:method: GET :method: GET
:scheme: http :scheme: http
:path: / :path: /
:authority: www.example.com :authority: www.example.com
Hex dump of encoded data: Hex dump of encoded data:
skipping to change at page 39, line 20 skipping to change at page 36, line 46
| idx = 6 | idx = 6
| -> :scheme: http | -> :scheme: http
84 | == Indexed - Add == 84 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 4 | idx = 4
| -> :path: / | -> :path: /
41 | == Literal indexed == 41 | == Literal indexed ==
| Indexed name (idx = 1) | Indexed name (idx = 1)
| :authority | :authority
0f | Literal value (len = 15) 0f | Literal value (len = 15)
7777 772e 6578 616d 706c 652e 636f 6d | www.example.com 7777 772e 6578 616d 706c 652e 636f 6d | www.example.com
| -> :authority: www.example\ | -> :authority:
| .com | www.example.com
Header Table (after decoding): Dynamic Table (after decoding):
[ 1] (s = 57) :authority: www.example.com [ 1] (s = 57) :authority: www.example.com
Table size: 57 Table size: 57
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
:method: GET :method: GET
:scheme: http :scheme: http
:path: / :path: /
:authority: www.example.com :authority: www.example.com
D.3.2. Second Request C.3.2. Second Request
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
:method: GET :method: GET
:scheme: http :scheme: http
:path: / :path: /
:authority: www.example.com :authority: www.example.com
cache-control: no-cache cache-control: no-cache
Hex dump of encoded data: Hex dump of encoded data:
skipping to change at page 40, line 17 skipping to change at page 37, line 39
| idx = 2 | idx = 2
| -> :method: GET | -> :method: GET
86 | == Indexed - Add == 86 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 6 | idx = 6
| -> :scheme: http | -> :scheme: http
84 | == Indexed - Add == 84 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 4 | idx = 4
| -> :path: / | -> :path: /
be | == Indexed - Add == be | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 62 | idx = 62
| -> :authority: www.example\ | -> :authority:
| .com | www.example.com
58 | == Literal indexed == 58 | == Literal indexed ==
| Indexed name (idx = 24) | Indexed name (idx = 24)
| cache-control | cache-control
08 | Literal value (len = 8) 08 | Literal value (len = 8)
6e6f 2d63 6163 6865 | no-cache 6e6f 2d63 6163 6865 | no-cache
| -> cache-control: no-cache | -> cache-control: no-cache
Header Table (after decoding): Dynamic Table (after decoding):
[ 1] (s = 53) cache-control: no-cache [ 1] (s = 53) cache-control: no-cache
[ 2] (s = 57) :authority: www.example.com [ 2] (s = 57) :authority: www.example.com
Table size: 110 Table size: 110
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
:method: GET :method: GET
:scheme: http :scheme: http
:path: / :path: /
:authority: www.example.com :authority: www.example.com
cache-control: no-cache cache-control: no-cache
D.3.3. Third Request C.3.3. Third Request
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
:method: GET :method: GET
:scheme: https :scheme: https
:path: /index.html :path: /index.html
:authority: www.example.com :authority: www.example.com
custom-key: custom-value custom-key: custom-value
Hex dump of encoded data: Hex dump of encoded data:
8287 85bf 400a 6375 7374 6f6d 2d6b 6579 | ....@.custom-key 8287 85bf 400a 6375 7374 6f6d 2d6b 6579 | ....@.custom-key
0c63 7573 746f 6d2d 7661 6c75 65 | .custom-value 0c63 7573 746f 6d2d 7661 6c75 65 | .custom-value
Decoding process: Decoding process:
82 | == Indexed - Add == 82 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 2 | idx = 2
| -> :method: GET | -> :method: GET
skipping to change at page 41, line 22 skipping to change at page 38, line 41
| idx = 2 | idx = 2
| -> :method: GET | -> :method: GET
87 | == Indexed - Add == 87 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 7 | idx = 7
| -> :scheme: https | -> :scheme: https
85 | == Indexed - Add == 85 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 5 | idx = 5
| -> :path: /index.html | -> :path: /index.html
bf | == Indexed - Add == bf | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 63 | idx = 63
| -> :authority: www.example\ | -> :authority:
| .com | www.example.com
40 | == Literal indexed == 40 | == Literal indexed ==
0a | Literal name (len = 10) 0a | Literal name (len = 10)
6375 7374 6f6d 2d6b 6579 | custom-key 6375 7374 6f6d 2d6b 6579 | custom-key
0c | Literal value (len = 12) 0c | Literal value (len = 12)
6375 7374 6f6d 2d76 616c 7565 | custom-value 6375 7374 6f6d 2d76 616c 7565 | custom-value
| -> custom-key: custom-valu\ | -> custom-key:
| e | custom-value
Header Table (after decoding): Dynamic Table (after decoding):
[ 1] (s = 54) custom-key: custom-value [ 1] (s = 54) custom-key: custom-value
[ 2] (s = 53) cache-control: no-cache [ 2] (s = 53) cache-control: no-cache
[ 3] (s = 57) :authority: www.example.com [ 3] (s = 57) :authority: www.example.com
Table size: 164 Table size: 164
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
:method: GET :method: GET
:scheme: https :scheme: https
:path: /index.html :path: /index.html
:authority: www.example.com :authority: www.example.com
custom-key: custom-value custom-key: custom-value
D.4. Request Examples with Huffman Coding C.4. Request Examples with Huffman Coding
This section shows the same examples as the previous section, but This section shows the same examples as the previous section but uses
using Huffman encoding for the literal values. Huffman encoding for the literal values.
D.4.1. First Request C.4.1. First Request
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
:method: GET :method: GET
:scheme: http :scheme: http
:path: / :path: /
:authority: www.example.com :authority: www.example.com
Hex dump of encoded data: Hex dump of encoded data:
skipping to change at page 42, line 38 skipping to change at page 40, line 24
| idx = 4 | idx = 4
| -> :path: / | -> :path: /
41 | == Literal indexed == 41 | == Literal indexed ==
| Indexed name (idx = 1) | Indexed name (idx = 1)
| :authority | :authority
8c | Literal value (len = 12) 8c | Literal value (len = 12)
| Huffman encoded: | Huffman encoded:
f1e3 c2e5 f23a 6ba0 ab90 f4ff | .....:k..... f1e3 c2e5 f23a 6ba0 ab90 f4ff | .....:k.....
| Decoded: | Decoded:
| www.example.com | www.example.com
| -> :authority: www.example\ | -> :authority:
| .com | www.example.com
Header Table (after decoding): Dynamic Table (after decoding):
[ 1] (s = 57) :authority: www.example.com [ 1] (s = 57) :authority: www.example.com
Table size: 57 Table size: 57
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
:method: GET :method: GET
:scheme: http :scheme: http
:path: / :path: /
:authority: www.example.com :authority: www.example.com
D.4.2. Second Request C.4.2. Second Request
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
:method: GET :method: GET
:scheme: http :scheme: http
:path: / :path: /
:authority: www.example.com :authority: www.example.com
cache-control: no-cache cache-control: no-cache
Hex dump of encoded data: Hex dump of encoded data:
skipping to change at page 43, line 32 skipping to change at page 41, line 18
| idx = 2 | idx = 2
| -> :method: GET | -> :method: GET
86 | == Indexed - Add == 86 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 6 | idx = 6
| -> :scheme: http | -> :scheme: http
84 | == Indexed - Add == 84 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 4 | idx = 4
| -> :path: / | -> :path: /
be | == Indexed - Add == be | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 62 | idx = 62
| -> :authority: www.example\ | -> :authority:
| .com | www.example.com
58 | == Literal indexed == 58 | == Literal indexed ==
| Indexed name (idx = 24) | Indexed name (idx = 24)
| cache-control | cache-control
86 | Literal value (len = 6) 86 | Literal value (len = 6)
| Huffman encoded: | Huffman encoded:
a8eb 1064 9cbf | ...d.. a8eb 1064 9cbf | ...d..
| Decoded: | Decoded:
| no-cache | no-cache
| -> cache-control: no-cache | -> cache-control: no-cache
Header Table (after decoding): Dynamic Table (after decoding):
[ 1] (s = 53) cache-control: no-cache [ 1] (s = 53) cache-control: no-cache
[ 2] (s = 57) :authority: www.example.com [ 2] (s = 57) :authority: www.example.com
Table size: 110 Table size: 110
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
:method: GET :method: GET
:scheme: http :scheme: http
:path: / :path: /
:authority: www.example.com :authority: www.example.com
cache-control: no-cache cache-control: no-cache
D.4.3. Third Request C.4.3. Third Request
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
:method: GET :method: GET
:scheme: https :scheme: https
:path: /index.html :path: /index.html
:authority: www.example.com :authority: www.example.com
custom-key: custom-value custom-key: custom-value
Hex dump of encoded data: Hex dump of encoded data:
8287 85bf 4088 25a8 49e9 5ba9 7d7f 8925 | ....@.%.I.[.}..% 8287 85bf 4088 25a8 49e9 5ba9 7d7f 8925 | ....@.%.I.[.}..%
a849 e95b b8e8 b4bf | .I.[.... a849 e95b b8e8 b4bf | .I.[....
Decoding process: Decoding process:
82 | == Indexed - Add == 82 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 2 | idx = 2
| -> :method: GET | -> :method: GET
skipping to change at page 45, line 18 skipping to change at page 42, line 22
| idx = 2 | idx = 2
| -> :method: GET | -> :method: GET
87 | == Indexed - Add == 87 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 7 | idx = 7
| -> :scheme: https | -> :scheme: https
85 | == Indexed - Add == 85 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 5 | idx = 5
| -> :path: /index.html | -> :path: /index.html
bf | == Indexed - Add == bf | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 63 | idx = 63
| -> :authority: www.example\ | -> :authority:
| .com | www.example.com
40 | == Literal indexed == 40 | == Literal indexed ==
88 | Literal name (len = 8) 88 | Literal name (len = 8)
| Huffman encoded: | Huffman encoded:
25a8 49e9 5ba9 7d7f | %.I.[.}. 25a8 49e9 5ba9 7d7f | %.I.[.}.
| Decoded: | Decoded:
| custom-key | custom-key
89 | Literal value (len = 9) 89 | Literal value (len = 9)
| Huffman encoded: | Huffman encoded:
25a8 49e9 5bb8 e8b4 bf | %.I.[.... 25a8 49e9 5bb8 e8b4 bf | %.I.[....
| Decoded: | Decoded:
| custom-value | custom-value
| -> custom-key: custom-valu\ | -> custom-key:
| e | custom-value
Header Table (after decoding): Dynamic Table (after decoding):
[ 1] (s = 54) custom-key: custom-value [ 1] (s = 54) custom-key: custom-value
[ 2] (s = 53) cache-control: no-cache [ 2] (s = 53) cache-control: no-cache
[ 3] (s = 57) :authority: www.example.com [ 3] (s = 57) :authority: www.example.com
Table size: 164 Table size: 164
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
:method: GET :method: GET
:scheme: https :scheme: https
:path: /index.html :path: /index.html
:authority: www.example.com :authority: www.example.com
custom-key: custom-value custom-key: custom-value
D.5. Response Examples without Huffman Coding C.5. Response Examples without Huffman Coding
This section shows several consecutive header lists, corresponding to This section shows several consecutive header lists, corresponding to
HTTP responses, on the same connection. The HTTP/2 setting parameter HTTP responses, on the same connection. The HTTP/2 setting parameter
SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE is set to the value of 256 octets, causing SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE is set to the value of 256 octets, causing
some evictions to occur. some evictions to occur.
D.5.1. First Response C.5.1. First Response
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
:status: 302 :status: 302
cache-control: private cache-control: private
date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
location: https://www.example.com location: https://www.example.com
Hex dump of encoded data: Hex dump of encoded data:
skipping to change at page 47, line 24 skipping to change at page 44, line 24
| cache-control | cache-control
07 | Literal value (len = 7) 07 | Literal value (len = 7)
7072 6976 6174 65 | private 7072 6976 6174 65 | private
| -> cache-control: private | -> cache-control: private
61 | == Literal indexed == 61 | == Literal indexed ==
| Indexed name (idx = 33) | Indexed name (idx = 33)
| date | date
1d | Literal value (len = 29) 1d | Literal value (len = 29)
4d6f 6e2c 2032 3120 4f63 7420 3230 3133 | Mon, 21 Oct 2013 4d6f 6e2c 2032 3120 4f63 7420 3230 3133 | Mon, 21 Oct 2013
2032 303a 3133 3a32 3120 474d 54 | 20:13:21 GMT 2032 303a 3133 3a32 3120 474d 54 | 20:13:21 GMT
| -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 \ | -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013
| 20:13:21 GMT | 20:13:21 GMT
6e | == Literal indexed == 6e | == Literal indexed ==
| Indexed name (idx = 46) | Indexed name (idx = 46)
| location | location
17 | Literal value (len = 23) 17 | Literal value (len = 23)
6874 7470 733a 2f2f 7777 772e 6578 616d | https://www.exam 6874 7470 733a 2f2f 7777 772e 6578 616d | https://www.exam
706c 652e 636f 6d | ple.com 706c 652e 636f 6d | ple.com
| -> location: https://www.e\ | -> location:
| xample.com | https://www.example.com
Header Table (after decoding): Dynamic Table (after decoding):
[ 1] (s = 63) location: https://www.example.com [ 1] (s = 63) location: https://www.example.com
[ 2] (s = 65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT [ 2] (s = 65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
[ 3] (s = 52) cache-control: private [ 3] (s = 52) cache-control: private
[ 4] (s = 42) :status: 302 [ 4] (s = 42) :status: 302
Table size: 222 Table size: 222
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
:status: 302 :status: 302
cache-control: private cache-control: private
date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
location: https://www.example.com location: https://www.example.com
D.5.2. Second Response C.5.2. Second Response
The (":status", "302") header field is evicted from the header table The (":status", "302") header field is evicted from the dynamic table
to free space to allow adding the (":status", "307") header field. to free space to allow adding the (":status", "307") header field.
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
:status: 307 :status: 307
cache-control: private cache-control: private
date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
location: https://www.example.com location: https://www.example.com
Hex dump of encoded data: Hex dump of encoded data:
skipping to change at page 48, line 35 skipping to change at page 45, line 35
| :status | :status
03 | Literal value (len = 3) 03 | Literal value (len = 3)
3330 37 | 307 3330 37 | 307
| - evict: :status: 302 | - evict: :status: 302
| -> :status: 307 | -> :status: 307
c1 | == Indexed - Add == c1 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 65 | idx = 65
| -> cache-control: private | -> cache-control: private
c0 | == Indexed - Add == c0 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 64 | idx = 64
| -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 \ | -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013
| 20:13:21 GMT | 20:13:21 GMT
bf | == Indexed - Add == bf | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 63 | idx = 63
| -> location: https://www.e\ | -> location:
| xample.com | https://www.example.com
Header Table (after decoding): Dynamic Table (after decoding):
[ 1] (s = 42) :status: 307 [ 1] (s = 42) :status: 307
[ 2] (s = 63) location: https://www.example.com [ 2] (s = 63) location: https://www.example.com
[ 3] (s = 65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT [ 3] (s = 65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
[ 4] (s = 52) cache-control: private [ 4] (s = 52) cache-control: private
Table size: 222 Table size: 222
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
:status: 307 :status: 307
cache-control: private cache-control: private
date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
location: https://www.example.com location: https://www.example.com
D.5.3. Third Response C.5.3. Third Response
Several header fields are evicted from the header table during the Several header fields are evicted from the dynamic table during the
processing of this header list. processing of this header list.
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
:status: 200 :status: 200
cache-control: private cache-control: private
date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT
location: https://www.example.com location: https://www.example.com
content-encoding: gzip content-encoding: gzip
set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; max-age=3600; version=1 set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; max-age=3600; version=1
skipping to change at page 50, line 18 skipping to change at page 47, line 18
| -> :status: 200 | -> :status: 200
c1 | == Indexed - Add == c1 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 65 | idx = 65
| -> cache-control: private | -> cache-control: private
61 | == Literal indexed == 61 | == Literal indexed ==
| Indexed name (idx = 33) | Indexed name (idx = 33)
| date | date
1d | Literal value (len = 29) 1d | Literal value (len = 29)
4d6f 6e2c 2032 3120 4f63 7420 3230 3133 | Mon, 21 Oct 2013 4d6f 6e2c 2032 3120 4f63 7420 3230 3133 | Mon, 21 Oct 2013
2032 303a 3133 3a32 3220 474d 54 | 20:13:22 GMT 2032 303a 3133 3a32 3220 474d 54 | 20:13:22 GMT
| - evict: cache-control: pr\ | - evict: cache-control:
| ivate | private
| -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 \ | -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013
| 20:13:22 GMT | 20:13:22 GMT
c0 | == Indexed - Add == c0 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 64 | idx = 64
| -> location: https://www.e\ | -> location:
| xample.com | https://www.example.com
5a | == Literal indexed == 5a | == Literal indexed ==
| Indexed name (idx = 26) | Indexed name (idx = 26)
| content-encoding | content-encoding
04 | Literal value (len = 4) 04 | Literal value (len = 4)
677a 6970 | gzip 677a 6970 | gzip
| - evict: date: Mon, 21 Oct\ | - evict: date: Mon, 21 Oct
| 2013 20:13:21 GMT | 2013 20:13:21 GMT
| -> content-encoding: gzip | -> content-encoding: gzip
77 | == Literal indexed == 77 | == Literal indexed ==
| Indexed name (idx = 55) | Indexed name (idx = 55)
| set-cookie | set-cookie
38 | Literal value (len = 56) 38 | Literal value (len = 56)
666f 6f3d 4153 444a 4b48 514b 425a 584f | foo=ASDJKHQKBZXO 666f 6f3d 4153 444a 4b48 514b 425a 584f | foo=ASDJKHQKBZXO
5157 454f 5049 5541 5851 5745 4f49 553b | QWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; 5157 454f 5049 5541 5851 5745 4f49 553b | QWEOPIUAXQWEOIU;
206d 6178 2d61 6765 3d33 3630 303b 2076 | max-age=3600; v 206d 6178 2d61 6765 3d33 3630 303b 2076 | max-age=3600; v
6572 7369 6f6e 3d31 | ersion=1 6572 7369 6f6e 3d31 | ersion=1
| - evict: location: https:/\ | - evict: location:
| /www.example.com | https://www.example.com
| - evict: :status: 307 | - evict: :status: 307
| -> set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQ\ | -> set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQ
| KBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; ma\ | KBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; ma
| x-age=3600; version=1 | x-age=3600; version=1
Header Table (after decoding): Dynamic Table (after decoding):
[ 1] (s = 98) set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; max-age\ [ 1] (s = 98) set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU;
=3600; version=1 max-age=3600; version=1
[ 2] (s = 52) content-encoding: gzip [ 2] (s = 52) content-encoding: gzip
[ 3] (s = 65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT [ 3] (s = 65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT
Table size: 215 Table size: 215
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
:status: 200 :status: 200
cache-control: private cache-control: private
date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT
location: https://www.example.com location: https://www.example.com
content-encoding: gzip content-encoding: gzip
set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; max-age=3600; version=1 set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; max-age=3600; version=1
D.6. Response Examples with Huffman Coding C.6. Response Examples with Huffman Coding
This section shows the same examples as the previous section, but This section shows the same examples as the previous section but uses
using Huffman encoding for the literal values. The HTTP/2 setting Huffman encoding for the literal values. The HTTP/2 setting
parameter SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE is set to the value of 256 parameter SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE is set to the value of 256
octets, causing some evictions to occur. The eviction mechanism uses octets, causing some evictions to occur. The eviction mechanism uses
the length of the decoded literal values, so the same evictions the length of the decoded literal values, so the same evictions occur
occurs as in the previous section. as in the previous section.
D.6.1. First Response C.6.1. First Response
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
:status: 302 :status: 302
cache-control: private cache-control: private
date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
location: https://www.example.com location: https://www.example.com
Hex dump of encoded data: Hex dump of encoded data:
skipping to change at page 52, line 33 skipping to change at page 49, line 33
| private | private
| -> cache-control: private | -> cache-control: private
61 | == Literal indexed == 61 | == Literal indexed ==
| Indexed name (idx = 33) | Indexed name (idx = 33)
| date | date
96 | Literal value (len = 22) 96 | Literal value (len = 22)
| Huffman encoded: | Huffman encoded:
d07a be94 1054 d444 a820 0595 040b 8166 | .z...T.D. .....f d07a be94 1054 d444 a820 0595 040b 8166 | .z...T.D. .....f
e082 a62d 1bff | ...-.. e082 a62d 1bff | ...-..
| Decoded: | Decoded:
| Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 \ | Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21
| GMT | GMT
| -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 \ | -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013
| 20:13:21 GMT | 20:13:21 GMT
6e | == Literal indexed == 6e | == Literal indexed ==
| Indexed name (idx = 46) | Indexed name (idx = 46)
| location | location
91 | Literal value (len = 17) 91 | Literal value (len = 17)
| Huffman encoded: | Huffman encoded:
9d29 ad17 1863 c78f 0b97 c8e9 ae82 ae43 | .)...c.........C 9d29 ad17 1863 c78f 0b97 c8e9 ae82 ae43 | .)...c.........C
d3 | . d3 | .
| Decoded: | Decoded:
| https://www.example.com | https://www.example.com
| -> location: https://www.e\ | -> location:
| xample.com | https://www.example.com
Header Table (after decoding): Dynamic Table (after decoding):
[ 1] (s = 63) location: https://www.example.com [ 1] (s = 63) location: https://www.example.com
[ 2] (s = 65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT [ 2] (s = 65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
[ 3] (s = 52) cache-control: private [ 3] (s = 52) cache-control: private
[ 4] (s = 42) :status: 302 [ 4] (s = 42) :status: 302
Table size: 222 Table size: 222
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
:status: 302 :status: 302
cache-control: private cache-control: private
date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
location: https://www.example.com location: https://www.example.com
D.6.2. Second Response C.6.2. Second Response
The (":status", "302") header field is evicted from the header table The (":status", "302") header field is evicted from the dynamic table
to free space to allow adding the (":status", "307") header field. to free space to allow adding the (":status", "307") header field.
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
:status: 307 :status: 307
cache-control: private cache-control: private
date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
location: https://www.example.com location: https://www.example.com
Hex dump of encoded data: Hex dump of encoded data:
skipping to change at page 54, line 22 skipping to change at page 51, line 22
640e ff | d.. 640e ff | d..
| Decoded: | Decoded:
| 307 | 307
| - evict: :status: 302 | - evict: :status: 302
| -> :status: 307 | -> :status: 307
c1 | == Indexed - Add == c1 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 65 | idx = 65
| -> cache-control: private | -> cache-control: private
c0 | == Indexed - Add == c0 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 64 | idx = 64
| -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 \ | -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013
| 20:13:21 GMT | 20:13:21 GMT
bf | == Indexed - Add == bf | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 63 | idx = 63
| -> location: https://www.e\ | -> location:
| xample.com | https://www.example.com
Header Table (after decoding): Dynamic Table (after decoding):
[ 1] (s = 42) :status: 307 [ 1] (s = 42) :status: 307
[ 2] (s = 63) location: https://www.example.com [ 2] (s = 63) location: https://www.example.com
[ 3] (s = 65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT [ 3] (s = 65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
[ 4] (s = 52) cache-control: private [ 4] (s = 52) cache-control: private
Table size: 222 Table size: 222
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
:status: 307 :status: 307
cache-control: private cache-control: private
date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:21 GMT
location: https://www.example.com location: https://www.example.com
D.6.3. Third Response C.6.3. Third Response
Several header fields are evicted from the header table during the Several header fields are evicted from the dynamic table during the
processing of this header list. processing of this header list.
Header list to encode: Header list to encode:
:status: 200 :status: 200
cache-control: private cache-control: private
date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT
location: https://www.example.com location: https://www.example.com
content-encoding: gzip content-encoding: gzip
set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; max-age=3600; version=1 set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; max-age=3600; version=1
skipping to change at page 55, line 38 skipping to change at page 52, line 38
| idx = 65 | idx = 65
| -> cache-control: private | -> cache-control: private
61 | == Literal indexed == 61 | == Literal indexed ==
| Indexed name (idx = 33) | Indexed name (idx = 33)
| date | date
96 | Literal value (len = 22) 96 | Literal value (len = 22)
| Huffman encoded: | Huffman encoded:
d07a be94 1054 d444 a820 0595 040b 8166 | .z...T.D. .....f d07a be94 1054 d444 a820 0595 040b 8166 | .z...T.D. .....f
e084 a62d 1bff | ...-.. e084 a62d 1bff | ...-..
| Decoded: | Decoded:
| Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 \ | Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22
| GMT | GMT
| - evict: cache-control: pr\ | - evict: cache-control:
| ivate | private
| -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 \ | -> date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013
| 20:13:22 GMT | 20:13:22 GMT
c0 | == Indexed - Add == c0 | == Indexed - Add ==
| idx = 64 | idx = 64
| -> location: https://www.e\ | -> location:
| xample.com | https://www.example.com
5a | == Literal indexed == 5a | == Literal indexed ==
| Indexed name (idx = 26) | Indexed name (idx = 26)
| content-encoding | content-encoding
83 | Literal value (len = 3) 83 | Literal value (len = 3)
| Huffman encoded: | Huffman encoded:
9bd9 ab | ... 9bd9 ab | ...
| Decoded: | Decoded:
| gzip | gzip
| - evict: date: Mon, 21 Oct\ | - evict: date: Mon, 21 Oct
| 2013 20:13:21 GMT | 2013 20:13:21 GMT
| -> content-encoding: gzip | -> content-encoding: gzip
77 | == Literal indexed == 77 | == Literal indexed ==
| Indexed name (idx = 55) | Indexed name (idx = 55)
| set-cookie | set-cookie
ad | Literal value (len = 45) ad | Literal value (len = 45)
| Huffman encoded: | Huffman encoded:
94e7 821d d7f2 e6c7 b335 dfdf cd5b 3960 | .........5...[9` 94e7 821d d7f2 e6c7 b335 dfdf cd5b 3960 | .........5...[9`
d5af 2708 7f36 72c1 ab27 0fb5 291f 9587 | ..'..6r..'..)... d5af 2708 7f36 72c1 ab27 0fb5 291f 9587 | ..'..6r..'..)...
3160 65c0 03ed 4ee5 b106 3d50 07 | 1`e...N...=P. 3160 65c0 03ed 4ee5 b106 3d50 07 | 1`e...N...=P.
| Decoded: | Decoded:
| foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQ\ | foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQ
| WEOIU; max-age=3600; versi\ | WEOIU; max-age=3600; versi
| on=1 | on=1
| - evict: location: https:/\ | - evict: location:
| /www.example.com | https://www.example.com
| - evict: :status: 307 | - evict: :status: 307
| -> set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQ\ | -> set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQ
| KBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; ma\ | KBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; ma
| x-age=3600; version=1 | x-age=3600; version=1
Header Table (after decoding): Dynamic Table (after decoding):
[ 1] (s = 98) set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; max-age\ [ 1] (s = 98) set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU;
=3600; version=1 max-age=3600; version=1
[ 2] (s = 52) content-encoding: gzip [ 2] (s = 52) content-encoding: gzip
[ 3] (s = 65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT [ 3] (s = 65) date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT
Table size: 215 Table size: 215
Decoded header list: Decoded header list:
:status: 200 :status: 200
cache-control: private cache-control: private
date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT date: Mon, 21 Oct 2013 20:13:22 GMT
location: https://www.example.com location: https://www.example.com
content-encoding: gzip content-encoding: gzip
set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; max-age=3600; version=1 set-cookie: foo=ASDJKHQKBZXOQWEOPIUAXQWEOIU; max-age=3600; version=1
Acknowledgments
This specification includes substantial input from the following
individuals:
o Mike Bishop, Jeff Pinner, Julian Reschke, and Martin Thomson
(substantial editorial contributions).
o Johnny Graettinger (Huffman code statistics).
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Roberto Peon Roberto Peon
Google, Inc Google, Inc
EMail: fenix@google.com EMail: fenix@google.com
Herve Ruellan Herve Ruellan
Canon CRF Canon CRF
 End of changes. 285 change blocks. 
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